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Document Name: IEEE 112: Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators CFR Section(s): 10 CFR 431.15 Standards Body: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ■1 illllli IEEEStd112™-2004 (Revision of lEEEStd 112-1996) 112™ IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators ■b IEEE Power Engineering Society Sponsored by the Electric Machinery Committee I :■ I 111 :"""'B II mk Will mm 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA 4 November 2004 Print: SH95211 PDF: SS95211 Recognized as an IEEE Std 1 1 2™-2004 American National Standard (ANSI) (Revision of IEEE Std 112-1996) IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators Sponsor Electric Machinery Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Approved 12 May 2004 American National Standard Institute Approved 9 February 2004 IEEE-SA Standards Board Abstract: instructions for conducting and reporting the more generally applicable and acceptable tests of polyphase induction motors and generators are covered. Keywords: acceptance and performance testing, generators, induction, machines, motors, polyphase The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, inc. 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA Copyright © 2004 by the institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. Published 4 November 2004. Printed in the United States of America. IEEE is a registered trademark in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office, owned by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated. Print: ISBN 0-7381-3977-7 SH95211 PDF: ISBN 0-7381-3978-5 SS9521 1 No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. IEEE Standards documents are developed within the IEEE Societies and the Standards Coordinating Committees of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE- S A) Standards Board. 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Suggestions for changes in documents should be in the form of a proposed change of text, together with appropriate supporting comments. Comments on standards and requests for interpretations should be addressed to: Secretary, 1EEE-SA Standards Board 445 Hoes Lane P.O.Box 1331 Piscataway, NJ 08855-1 33 1 USA NOTE— Attention is called to the possibility that implementation of this standard may require use of subject matter covered by patent rights. By publication of this standard, no position is taken with respect to the exist- ence or validity of any patent rights in connection therewith. The IEEE shall not be responsible for identifying patents for which a license may be required by an IEEE standard or for conducting inquiries into the legal valid- ity or scope of those patents that are brought to its attention. Authorization to photocopy portions of any individual standard for internal or personal use is granted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., provided that the appropriate fee is paid to Copyright Clearance Center. To arrange for payment of licensing fee, please contact Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA; +1 978 750 8400. Permission to photocopy portions of any individual standard for educational classroom use can also be obtained through the Copyright Clearance Center. Introduction This introduction is not part of IEEE Std 112-2004, IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators. This standard provides the basic test procedure for evaluating the performance of a polyphase induction motor or generator of any size. Each revision of the standard since its 1964 introduction as an IEEE standard has been to keep the standard current with improvements in instrumentation, with improvements in test tech- niques, with increased knowledge in the art of measurements, and with the constant change in the needs and desires of the machine users and of those concerned with energy conservation and the like. Major portions of the document have been rearranged to accomplish this and the user is cautioned to check any external refer- ences to particular clauses of previous versions tor the correct clause number in this version. Each individual test is defined and each efficiency test method is now covered in more detail and step-by-step instructions are presented. Standard symbols are now used for all quantities. Notice to users Errata Errata, if any, for this and all other standards can be accessed at the following URL: http:// standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/updates/errata/mdex.html. Users are encouraged to check this URL for errata periodically. Interpretations Current interpretations can be accessed at the following URL: http://standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/inteip/ index .html. Patents Attention is called to the possibility that implementation of this standard may require use of subject matter covered by patent rights. By publication of this standard, no position is taken with respect to the existence or validity of any patent rights in connection therewith. The IEEE shall not be responsible for identifying patents or patent applications for which a license may be required to implement an IEEE standard or for conducting inquiries into the legal validity or scope of those patents that are brought to its attention. Copyright© 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved. Participants The following is a list of the participants of the Electric Machinery Committee Working Group on this standard: Paul Anderson Robert Bartheld (Liaison) Paul G Cummings Roger H. Daugherty James H. Dymond Franklin H. Grooms, Chair Nirmal K. Ghai John S. Hsu Khursheed S. Hussein Ziba Kellum Joseph Kline Bill Lockley Walter!. Martiny Venkatachari Rajagopalan Steven J. Stretz The following members of the individual balloting committee voted on this standard. Balloters may have voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention. Paul Anderson William Bartley Thomas Bishop Thomas Blair Steven Brockschink Weijen Chen Tommy Cooper Mike Darby Roger Daugherty Byron Davenport Gary Donner James H. Dymond James H. Edmonds Ahmed El-Serafi Amir El-Sheikh Gary Engmann Jorge Fernandez-Daher Trilok Garg Nirmal K. Ghai Franklin H. Grooms Randall Groves Bal Gupta Paul Hamer Gary Heuston Ajit Hiranandani Edward Morgan Jr. George Kalacherry Yuri Khersonsky Geoff Klempner Joseph Kline Roger Lawrence Timothy Lensmire Lisardo Lourido Antonio J. Marques-Cardoso Jesus Martinez Walter J. Martiny Thomas McCaffrey Nigel McQuin James Michalec Gary Michel Krste Najdenkoski Arthur Neubauer Nils Nilsson Alvaro Portillo Mad an Rana James Ruggieri Greg Stone Shanmugan Thamilarasan When the IEEE-SA Standards membership: Chuck Adams H. Stephen Berger Mark D. Bowman Joseph A. Bruder Bob Davis Roberto de Boisson Julian Forster* Arnold M. Greenspan Board approved this standard on 9 February 2004, it had the following Don Wright, Chair vacant, Vice Chair Judith Gorman, Secretary Mark S. Halpin Raymond Hapeman Richard J. Holleman Richard H. Hulett Lowell G. Johnson Joseph L. Koepfinger* Hermann Koch Thomas J. McGean Daleep C. Mohla Paul Nikolich T. W. Olsen Ronald C. Petersen Gary S. Robinson Frank Stone Malcolm V. Thaden Doug Topping Joe D. Watson ^Member Emeritus Also included are the following nonvoting IEEE-SA Standards Board liaisons: Satish K. Aggarwal, NRC Representative Richard DeBlasio, DOE Representative Alan Cookson, NIST Representative Don Messina IEEE Standards Project Editor Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Overview 1 1.1 Scope 1 1.2 Purpose 1 2. References 1 3. General . 2 3.1. Power Supply 2 3.2 Types of tests 3 3.3 Standardized temperatures 4 3.4 Use of this standard - 4 3.5 Precautions - 5 4. Measurements 5 4.1 Electrical 5 4.2 Resistance 6 4.3 Mechanical 7 4.4 Temperature 7 4.5 Procedure 9 4.6 Safety 9 5. Machine losses and tests for losses 9 5.1 Types of losses 10 5.2 Stator I 2 R loss 10 5.3 Rotor f 2 R loss 11 5.4 Winding resistance — cold 12 5.5 No-load test 12 5.6 Load test... 13 5.7 Stray-load loss 15 5.8 Temperature test 19 5.9 Equivalent circuit 24 5.10 Brush-contact loss. 32 5.11 Power factor 32 6. Determination of efficiency 33 6.1 General 33 6.2 Efficiency test methods 33 6.3 Efficiency Test Method A — Input-output 34 6.4 Test Method B — Input-output with loss segregation 35 6.5 Test Method Bl — Input-output with loss segregation and assumed temperature 39 6.6 Test Method C-Duplicate machines 41 6.7 Test Method E or El — Electrical power measurement with loss segregation 46 6.8 Test Method F or Fl — Equivalent circuit 48 6.9 Test Method C/F, E/F, or El/Fl — Equivalent circuit calibrated with one load point 49 7. Other performance tests 50 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. v 7.1. Rotor voltage 50 7.2 Locked-rotor tests 50 7.3 Tests for speed-torque and speed-current curves 51 8. Miscellaneous tests , 54 8.1 Insulation resistance 54 8.2 High-potential test 55 8.3 Shalt current and voltage 56 8.4 Bearing insulation resistance.... 57 8.5 Noise 57 8.6 Balance and vibration . 57 8.7 Overspeed 57 9. Forms 58 9.1 Test forms and support information 58 9.2 Form A-Method A 59 9.3 Form A2-Method A calculations 60 9.4 Form B-Method B 61 9.5 Form B2-Method B calculations 62 9.6 Form Bl -Method Bl 63 9.7 Form Bl-2-Method Bl calculations 64 9.8 Form C-Method C 65 9.9 Form C2-Mel.hod C Calculations 67 9.10 Form E-Method E-El 69 9.11 Form E2-Method E-El calculations 70 9.12 Form F-Methods F, FL C/R E/F, and El/Fl 71 9.1.3 Form F2-Methods F, Fl, C/F, E/F, and El/Fl calculations 72 9.14 Test and equivalent circuit results 73 Annex A (informative) Bibliography 74 Annex B (informative) Typical report of test form for routine tests 75 Annex C (informative) Typical report of test form 76 Annex D (informative) Units of measure 77 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators 1. Overview 1.1 Scope This standard covers instructions for conducting and reporting the more generally applicable and acceptable tests of polyphase induction motors and generators. Many of the tests described may be applied to both motors and generators, as needed, and no attempt is made to partition the test procedure into clauses and subclauses that separately apply to motors or to generators. Whenever the term motor is used, it is to be understood that it may be replaced by the term generator, if applicable. Likewise, whenever machine is used, it may be replaced by either motor or generator, if applicable. Since polyphase power systems are almost universally three-phase systems, the equations in this standard have been written specifically for three phases. When the test is performed on other than three-phase power, the equations shall be modified appropriately. 1.2 Purpose Instructions for conducting and reporting the more generally applicable and acceptable tests are covered to determine the performance and characteristics of polyphase induction motors and generators. Additional tests, not specified herein, may be required to satisfy specific research or application needs. These proce- dures shall not be interpreted as requiring the performing of any specific test in a given transaction. 2. References This standard shall be used in conjunction with the following standards. When the following standards are superseded by an approved revision, the latest revision shall apply. IEEE Std 43' M -2000, IEEE Recommended Practice for Testing Insulation Resistance of Rotating Machinery. 1 ' 2 ! IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, Piscalaway, NJ 08854, USA (http://standards.ieee.org/). -The I BEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR IEEE Std 1 18™ -1978 (Reaff 1992), IEEE Standard Test Code for Resistance Measurements. IEEE Std 1 19' M -1974, IEEE Recommended Practice for General Principles of Temperature Measurement as Applied to Electrical Apparatus. IEEE Std 120™ -1989 (Reaff 1997), IEEE Master Test Guide for Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits. 3. General 3.1 Power Supply 3.1.1 Selection Because the performance of an induction machine is dependent not only upon the value of the line voltage and frequency but also on the wave shape and the balance in magnitude and phase angle of the line voltages, correct data can be obtained only by careful measurement with accurate instrumentation and by employing a suitable source of power. 3.1.2 Waveform The power supply shall provide balanced voltages closely approaching a sinusoidal waveform. The har- monic distortion coefficient, THD, shall not exceed 0.05. The THD is defined as shown in Equation (1). THD = ^ ^' (1) where E ] is the root-mean-square value of the fundamental of the voltage wave, in volts (V), E is the total root-mean-square value of the voltage wave, in V. 3.1.3 Voltage unbalance The voltage unbalance shall not exceed 0.5%. The percent voltage unbalance equals 100 times the maximum voltage deviation from the average voltage divided by the average voltage. Example: With line voltages of 220 V, 215 V, and 210 V, the average voltage is 215 V, the maximum devi- ation from the average is 5, and the unbalance equals (100 x 5)/215 = 2.3%. 3.1.4 Frequency Eor general testing, the frequency shall be within ±0.5% of the value required for the test being conducted, unless otherwise specified. Any departure from the specified frequency during the test directly affects the efficiency obtained with Efficiency Test Methods A, B, and Bl. When these Methods are used, the fre- quency shall be within ±0.1% of the specified test value. 3 IEEE Std 1 19-1974 has been withdrawn; however, copies can be obtained from Global Engineering, 15 Inverness Way East, Engle- woodXO 801 12-5704, USAael, (303) 792-2181 (http://global.ihs.corn/). Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 Rapid changes in frequency cannot be tolerated during testing because such variations affect not only the machine being tested, but also the output measuring devices. Variations in frequency during a test shall not exceed 0.33% of the average frequency. 3.2 Types of tests 3.2.1 Typical Polyphase induction machines are normally given a routine test, but they may also be given additional tests. For machine tests included in a typical routine test, refer to NEMA MG 1-2003 [B7] 4 parts 12 and 20. A typical form for reporting routine test data is shown in Annex B. A typical form for reporting additional test data is shown in Annex C. 3.2.2 Preliminary tests The measurement of the winding resistance is commonly the first test performed. The resistance or the con- tinuity of all windings and circuits should be measured at this time. The ambient temperature is measured using the procedure of IEEE Std 1 19-1974. If the machine has embed- ded detectors, these may be used to confirm that the winding is at the ambient temperature. 3.2.3 Idle running tests Running tests without load are made for the determination of core loss and windage and friction losses. Some other tests such as shaft voltage may also be performed under these conditions. 3.2.4 Tests with load Tests with load are made for the determination of efficiency, power factor, speed, current, and temperature rise. Some of the miscellaneous tests outlined in Clause 8 are also made with load. For all tests with load, the machine shall be properly aligned and securely fastened. For readings to be used in performance determina- tions, the machine temperature rise shall be some value between 50% and 120% of the rated temperature rise. The usual procedure is to take readings at higher loads first and then follow with readings at lower loads. 3.2.5 Tests with rotor locked It should be recognized that the testing of induction machines under locked-rotor conditions with polyphase power involves high mechanical stresses and high rates of heating. Therefore, it is necessary that a) The mechanical means of securing the machine and locking the rotor are of adequate strength to pre- vent possible injury to personnel or damage to equipment. b) The direction of rotation is established prior to the test. c) The machine is at approximately ambient temperature before the test is started. The current and torque readings shall be taken as quickly as possible, and, to obtain representative values, the machine temperature should not exceed rated temperature rise plus 40 °C. The readings for any point shall be taken within 5 seconds after voltage is applied. The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex A. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. At! rights reserved. IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 3.2.6 Choice of tests A complete list of tests covered by this standard is given in the table of contents. Alternate methods are described for making many of the tests suitable tor different sizes and types of machines and different condi- tions. In some cases, the preferred method is indicated. Also see 6.2. 1 . The schedule of factory and field tests that may be required on new equipment is normally specified by applicable standards or by contract specifications. The manufacturer's choice of method for factory or field tests on new equipment will govern in lieu of prior agreement or contract specification. 3.3 Standardized temperatures 3.3.1 Reference ambient temperature The reference ambient temperature shall be 25 °C. If the ambient temperature during any performance test differs from the reference ambient, the performance determinations shall be corrected to an ambient temper- ature of 25 °C. The actual test temperatures shall be used in the separation of losses in the no-load test and in determining the stray-load loss by the direct method. 3.3.2 Specified temperature The efficiency of the machine, at all loads, shall be determined based on the machine being at the specified temperature. To accurately determine the values of some of the component losses with some efficiency test methods, it is necessary that the actual test temperatures be used in the analysis. If these test temperatures are not equal to the specified temperatures, appropriate corrections of the temperature dependent FR losses shall be made. The specified temperature shall be determined by one of the following, which are listed in order of preference: a) The specified temperature is the measured temperature rise by resistance from a rated load tempera- ture test plus 25 °C. Rated load is the rating identified on the nameplate at a 1 .0 service factor. b) The specified temperature is the measured temperature rise, as outlined in item a), on a duplicate machine. A duplicate machine is defined here as one of the same construction and electrical design. c) When the rated load temperature rise has not been measured, the specified temperature is selected from Table 1 based on the class of the insulation system. If the rated temperature rise is stipulated to be that of a lower class of insulation system than that used in the construction, the temperature value listed for the lower insulation class shall be used as the specified temperature. Preference c) shall not be used in Efficiency Test Method B; only preferences a) and b) are acceptable. 3.4 Use of this standard After the test and test method are chosen, all necessary data may be obtained by following the instructions and precautions given in the subclause describing the test. Many of these subclauses include alternate meth- ods for obtaining the necessary data. Unless otherwise specified, the manufacturer may choose the method best suited to the facilities available. It is anticipated that the development of improved practices and new equipment, such as electronic and automatic devices, will result in new or improved methods of carrying out the intent of this test standard. New or modified methods may be used as substitutes when their results have been shown to be reliable and consistent with those obtained by the methods given in this test procedure. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 Table 1 —Specified temperature for efficiency calculations when the machine rated load temperature is not measured „. pt . ,. Temperature in °C Class of insulation | ^^ temperature induding system | 25°C reference ambient) A 75 B 95 F 115 H 130 3.5 Precautions CAUTION Many of the tests described in these procedures subject the machine to thermal and/or mechanical stresses beyond normal operating limits. To minimize the risk of damage to the machine, it is recommended that all tests be per- formed either under the manufacturer's supervision or in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. 4. Measurements 4.1 Electrical 4.1.1 RMS quantities All voltage and current measurements are root-mean-square (rms) values, unless otherwise indicated. 4.1.2 instrument selection Calibrated, high -accuracy instrumentation and accessory equipment shall be used. Either analog or digital instruments may be used in testing. Factors affecting accuracy, particularly with nonelectronic analog instru- ments, are a) Loading of the signal source b) Lead calibration c) Range, condition, and calibration of the instrument Since instrument accuracy is generally expressed as a percentage of full scale, the range of the instrument chosen shall be as low as practical. Electronic instruments are generally more versatile and have much higher input impedances than nonelec- tronic instruments. Higher input impedance reduces the need to make corrections for the current drawn by the instrument. However, high input impedance instruments can be more susceptible to noise. Common sources of noise are — Inductive or electrostatic coupling of signal leads to power systems — Common impedance coupling or ground loops — Inadequate common-mode rejection — Conducted interference from the power line Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR Good practice requires using shielded twisted pairs for signal leads, grounding the shield at only one point, keeping the signal cables as far away as possible from power cables, and keeping the crossings at right angles when signal and power cables do cross. All exposed metal parts of instruments should be grounded for safety. The instruments shall bear record of calibration, within 12 months of the test, indicating limits of the error no greater than ±0.5% of full scale for general testing or no greater than ±0.2% of full scale when the test results are for use with Efficiency Test Method B. When several instruments are connected in the circuit simultaneously, additional corrections of the instrument indication may be required. When suitable automatic data acquisition systems or high-speed recorders are available, they may be used. Further information regarding the use of instruments is given in IEEE Std 120-1989. 4.1.3 Instrument transformers When current and potential instrument transformers are used, corrections shall be made for ratio errors in voltage and current measurements, and for ratio and phase angle errors in power measurements. The errors of the transformers used shall not be greater than ±0.5% for general testing or not greater than ±0.3% when the test results are for use with Efficiency Test Method B. When instrument transformers and instruments for measuring voltage, current, or power are calibrated as a system, the errors of the system shall not be greater than ±0.2% of full scale when the test results are for use with Efficiency Test Method B. 4.1.4 Voltage Each of the line-to-line voltages shall be measured with the signal leads connected to the machine terminals. If local conditions will not permit such connections, the difference between the voltage at the machine ter- minals and the point of measurement shall be evaluated and the readings shall be corrected. The arithmetic average shall be used in calculating machine performance from the test data. 4.1.5 Current The line currents to each phase of the motor shall be measured, and the arithmetic average value shall be used in calculating machine performance from the test data. 4.1.6 Power Power input to a three-phase motor or power output from a three-phase generator may be measured by two single-phase wattmeters connected as in the two wattmeter method, one polyphase wattmeter, or three single phase wattmeters. Power readings shall be corrected for meter losses if they are significant. AH power measurements and calculations, both electrical and mechanical, herein are in watts. On large machines it may be more practical to work with power quantities expressed in kilowatts. If the unit of mea- sure is changed, take care that all affected values are properly converted. 4.2 Resistance 4.2.1 Instrument selection Calibrated high-accuracy instrumentation shall be used. Either analog instruments (such as a Kelvin bridge) or digital instruments may be used in testing. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 The instruments shall bear record of calibration, within 12 months of the test, indicating limits of the error no greater than ±0.2% of full scale. When a suitable automatic data acquisition system is available, it may be used. 4.2.2 Resistance measurement The procedures given in IEEE Std 1 18-1978 and IEEE Std 119-1974 should be used when measuring the resistance of the stator winding (and the rotor winding on wound-rotor machines). 4.3 Mechanical 4.3.1 Power Mechanical power measurements shall be taken with the greatest care and accuracy. If a mechanical brake is to be used, the tare, if present, shall be carefully determined and compensated for. If dynamometer output measurements are used, coupling and bearing friction losses must be compensated for. Properly sized dyna- mometers should be used, such that the coupling, friction, and windage losses of the dynamometer (see the note below) measured at rated speed of the machine being tested should not be greater than 15% of the rated output of the machine being tested; and the dynamometer should be sensitive to a change of torque of 0.25% of the rated torque. NOTE— A dynamometer is defined as a device for applying torque to the rotating member of the test machine. It is equipped with means for indicating torque and speed, and is not limited to a cradle base construction. An in-line torque transducer may be used to provide a direct measurement of torque at the test machine shaft 5 The eirors of the instrumentation used to measure mechanical torque shall not be greater than ±0.2% of full scale. 4.3.2 Speed and slip 4.3.2.1 Instruments Stroboscopies or digital tachometer methods shall be used to determine slip or speed. When a stroboscope is used to measure slip, the power supply for the stroboscope shall have the same frequency as the motor power supply. When the speed is measured, the instrumentation used shall have an error of not greater than ±1 .0 r/min of the reading. 4.4 Temperature 4.4.1 Methods of measuring temperatures The temperature of various machine parts or coolant may be measured by the following: a) Alcohol thermometer b) Local temperature detector c) Embedded detector d) Winding resistance Notes in text, tables, and figures are given for information only, and do not contain requirements needed to implement the standard. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ait rights reserved. IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR The temperatures measured by any of these methods can deviate substantially from those determined by the other listed methods. Therefore, the temperatures so measured by one method shall not be interpreted in relation to standards written in terms of the other methods. For general information, refer to IEEE Std 1 19-1974 and IEEE Std 1™-1986 [B5]. 4.4.1.1 Alcohol thermometer Alcohol thermometers are used to measure the temperature of accessible parts of the machine under test. Temperatures taken by the alcohol thermometer method may be measured on the following parts: a) Stator coils, in at least two places b) Stator core, in at least two places c) Ambient d) Air discharged from frame or air discharge ducts, or internal coolant discharged to the inlet of cool- ers of machines with recirculating cooling system e) Frame f) Bearings (when part of the machine) The alcohol thermometers should be located to obtain the highest temperature for the item being measured, except for ingoing and discharge air or other coolant temperature, for which they should be placed to obtain average values. 4.4.1.2 Local temperature detector The local temperature of various parts of a machine can be determined using local temperature detectors such as a) Thermocouples b) Small resistance thermometers c) Thermistors The maximum dimension of the detecting element of these local temperature detectors should not exceed 5 cm. These detectors can be used to measure temperatures in the same locations as alcohol thermometers, see 4.4. 1 .1 , and are commonly used in areas on or within the machine that are not accessible to an alcohol ther- mometer. They are frequently installed as permanent parts of a machine and are available for use during tests. The detecting element should be located on or in close thermal proximity to the part at which the local temperature is to be measured to obtain the highest temperature for that item, except for the incoming and discharge air or other coolant temperature, for which it should be placed to obtain the average value. Specially designed instruments should be used with local temperature detectors to prevent the introduction of significant errors or possibly damaging the detector during the measurement. Because of the variety of materials used in these detectors, take care to insure the instrument selected is suitable for the specific mate- rial used in the detector or is matched to the resistance value when resistance thermometers are used. Many ordinary resistance measuring devices may not be suitable for use with resistance thermometers because of the relatively large current that may be passed through the resistance element while making the measurement. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 4.4.1.3 Embedded detector Embedded detectors, such as resistance temperature detectors (rtds) or thermocouples, are commonly used on large machines to monitor the winding temperature during operation and are available for use during machine testing. They are usually installed between coil sides within a stator slot. An rtd gives a reading that is the average of the temperature of the two abutting coil sides over the length of the sensing element. A thermocouple measures the temperature of the spot where the thermocouple junction is located between the two coil sides. The precautions on the selection of instrumentation in 4.4.1 2 also apply here. 4.4.1.4 Winding resistance The average temperature of a winding can be determined by comparing the resistance of the winding at the temperature to be determined with the resistance at a known temperature. This method utilizes the character- istic of the conductor material where, in the temperature range of interest, the winding resistance changes in direct proportion to the winding temperature. See 5,2.1 . 4.4.2 Ambient temperature The procedure of IEEE Std 1 19-1974 should be followed in measuring the ambient temperature. 4.5 Procedure Whenever a series of increasing or decreasing readings of data are made, care should be taken in each case not to overrun the desired setting to avoid the introduction of hysteresis losses caused by a reversal in the direction of the test. 4.6 Safety CAUTION Because of the dangerous currents, voltages, and forces encountered, safety precautions shall be taken for all tests. No attempt is made here to list or review the manifold general safety precautions that are well established through- out industry. However, this standard includes special safety precautions applicable to the particular tests described. All tests should be performed by knowledgeable and experienced personnel. 5. Machine losses and tests for losses This clause identifies the losses of an induction machine and describes tests and calculations to be used to determine these losses and the machine performance characteristics. The results of these tests are used in making the efficiency and performance determinations of Clause 6. All tests and procedures of this clause are not required in all of the efficiency analysis methods. Refer to the specific efficiency test method of interest in Clause 6. Alternate test methods are presented where appropriate. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE Std 11 2-2004 | EEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 5.1 Types of losses The losses of aa induction machine include: — Stator l 2 R loss, see 5.2 — Rotor I 2 R loss, see 5 .3 — Friction and windage loss, see 5.5.4 — Core loss , see 5 .5 .5 — Stray-load loss, see 5.7 — Brush-contact loss, see 5.10 Other individual tests or procedures are required to support some of the efficiency test methods. These include: — Shaft power, see 5 .6 . 1 . 1 — Dynamometer correction, see 5.6.1 .2 — Equivalent circuit, see 5.9 — Temperature test, see 5,8 5.2 Stator l 2 R loss For a three-phase machine, the stator I 2 R loss, P SIR , in watts is as shown in Equation (2). P s/R = L5I 2 R = 3T 2 *, (2) where / is the measured or calculated current per line terminal, in amperes (A), R is the dc resistance, in ohms, between any two line terminals™ corrected to the appropriate temperature, if required (see 5.2.1), R\ is the per phase dc resistance, in ohms (see 5.9). 5.2.1 Resistance correction for temperature Some of the test analyses require that the winding resistance be adjusted or corrected to another temperature. With the winding resistance value, R a , available at a known temperature, t a , the resistance value at any other temperature, t b , can be determined using Equation (3). R h _ (3) '« + *1 where R a is the known value of winding resistance, in ohms, at temperature t a> t a is the temperature, in °C, of winding when the resistance R a was measured, t b is the temperature, in °C, to which the resistance is to be corrected, R b is the winding resistance, in ohms, corrected to the temperature t b , A-j is 234.5 for 100% IACS conductivity copper, or 225 for aluminum, based on a volume conductivity of 62%. For other winding materials, a suitable value of k x (inferred temperature for zero resistance) shall be used. 1 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 When a winding resistance value is calculated for a different temperature, t a and t b shall be based on the same method of measure. See 4.4. When any winding 1 2 R loss is determined at a temperature, the calcula- tion shall use a winding resistance value that is based on the winding being at an average (or uniform) temperature. The specified temperature, the temperature at shutdown (measured by resistance) and the tem- perature when the cold resistance is obtained are all average temperatures. It may not be possible to obtain average temperature readings during some tests (such as during a load test) and special procedures for eval- uating the average winding temperature using local detector readings may be necessary. One such procedure is utilized in 6.4.2.4. 5.3 Rotor i 2 R loss The rotor I 2 R loss, including brush-contact losses for wound-rotor machines, shall be determined from the slip using Equation (4) or Equation (5) as follows: motor rotor / R loss = (measured stator input power - stator I"R loss - core loss) x s (4) 2 2 generator / R loss = (measured stator output power + stator / R loss + core loss) x s (5) where s is slip, in per unit (p.u), with synchronous speed as base speed, see Equation (8). All power items are in watts (W). 5.3.1 Slip The slip speed, in r/min, can be measured directly by stroboscopic means or it can be calculated from the measured speed. This value then must be converted to a numeric or per unit value for use in the analyses. The slip speed is the difference between synchronous speed and measured speed, in r/min [see Equation (6)]. slip speed - n s + n t (6) where n v - 120 x-^ (7) P and n s is the synchronous speed, in r/min, n t is the measured speed, in r/min, / is the line frequency, in hertz, p is the number of poles. Slip expressed as a per unit quantity is slip speed (in r/min) synchronous speed (in r/min) (8) NOTE— It is assumed the number of poles is known. If not, the number of poles can be determined by using no-load test data and by rearranging Equation (7) to solve for p. (Multiply the input frequency times 120 and then divide by the mea- sured idle speed.) This calculation will result in a value very near an even number (0% to 4% high). Round this value to the nearest lower even number (such as, 2,4, 6, etc.) and this is the number of poles in the machine. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Alt rights reserved. IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 5.3.2 Slip correction for temperature The slip, in p.u., is directly related to the rotor resistance. Thus, the slip can be corrected for temperature using the same basic relationship as for resistance and temperature. The corrected value of slip is used in determining the rotor l 2 R loss in the final adjustments when using Efficiency Test Methods B, Bl, and C. Use Equation (9) to correct the test slip measurements to the specified stator temperature. where s s is the slip, in p.u., corrected to specified stator temperature, t u s t is the slip, in p.u., measured at stator winding temperature, t h t s is the specified temperature for resistance correction, in °C, see 3.3.2, t t is the observed stator winding temperature during load test, in °C, k\ is 234.5 for 100% IACS conductivity copper, or 225 for aluminum, based on a volume conductivity of 62% (based on rotor conductor material). NOTES: J —For other rotor winding materials, a suitable value oi k\ (inferred temperature for zero resistance) shall be used. 2— The values for t s and t t shall be based on the same method of measurement of temperature, see 5.2.1 . 5.4 Winding resistance— cold With the machine at ambient temperature, measure the terminal -to- terminal winding resistance with the machine connected in the configuration to be used in the efficiency testing. Measure and record all combina- tions, i.e., T1-T2, T2-T3, and T3-T1 , to assure that the specific precise value needed in further analyses will be available. Also measure and record the ambient temperature. See 3.2.2. 5.5 No-load test This test is performed by running the machine as a motor at rated voltage and frequency with no connected load. When separation of no-load losses is to be accomplished, run this test and read temperature, voltage, current, and power input at rated frequency and at voltages ranging from 1.25% of rated voltage down to the point where further voltage reduction increases the current. 5.5.1 Bearing loss stabilization Some motors may experience a change in friction loss until the bearings reach a stabilized operating condi- tion. In grease lubricated antifriction bearings, stabilization will not occur until there is no excess grease present in the path of the moving parts. This may require a number of hours of running to completely stabi- lize the no-load input power. Stabilization can be considered to have occurred whenever the power input at no-load does not vary by more than 3% between two successive readings at the same voltage at half-hour intervals. This bearing loss stabilization test may not be necessary if a temperature test has been performed prior to no-load testing. 5.5.2 No-load current The average of the line currents at rated voltage is the no-load current. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 112-2004 5.5.3 No-load losses The measured input: power is the total of the losses in the motor at no-loaci. These losses consist of the stator I 2 R, friction (including brush-friction loss on wound-rotor motors), windage, and core losses. 5.5.4 Friction and windage The friction and windage loss may also be determined by performing a linear regression analysis using three or more lower points of the power versus voltage squared curve. To determine the friction and windage loss, subtract the stator I 2 R loss (at the temperature of the test) from the total losses (i.e., input power) at each of the test voltage points and plot the resulting power curve versus voltage, extending the curve to zero voltage. The intercept with the zero voltage axis is the friction and windage loss. This intercept may be determined more accurately if the input power minus stator I 2 R loss is plotted against the voltage squared for values in the lower voltage range. 5.5.5 Core loss The core loss, P/ z , at each test voltage is obtained by subtracting the value of friction and windage loss (determined in 5.5.4) from the input power minus stator fiR loss (determined in 5.5.4). A plot of core loss versus voltage can be constructed for use in determining the core loss at any desired voltage. 5.6 Load test Most of the efficiency test methods require that a load test be performed either to directly determine the effi- ciency as in Efficiency Test Method A or to determine the stray-load loss as in Efficiency Test Methods B, Bl, and C. The machine is coupled to a load machine and is subjected to loads at four load points approxi- mately equally spaced between not less than 25% and up to and including 100% load, and two load points suitably chosen above 100% load but not exceeding 150% load. A spread in load test points is necessary to determine the efficiency accurately over the entire load range of the machine and more than six load points may be used if desired. Readings of electrical power, current, voltage, frequency, speed or slip, torque, stator winding temperature or stator winding resistance, and ambient temperature shall be obtained at each load point. In loading the machine, start at the highest load value and move in descending order to the lowest. The common loading means are as follows: — Dynamometer. See 5 .6.1 . — Direct loading without torque measurement. See 5.6.2. — Duplicate machine loading. See 5.6.3. 5.6.1 Dynamometer loading For this test, the machine is loaded by means of a mechanical brake or dynamometer (see 4.3.1) and tested as described in 5.6. This test should be performed as quickly as possible to minimize temperature changes in the machine during testing. For Efficiency Test Method B, the temperature of the stator winding shall be within 10 °C of the hottest temperature reading recorded during the rated load temperature test on this or the duplicate machine prior to the start of recording data for this test. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 5.6.1.1 Mechanical power The shaft power, in W, of the machine under test at each load point is obtained from Equation (10) using the test values of torque and speed. The torque may require correction for dynamometer losses. See 5.6.1 .2. P = 2xn s T 60 /Co (10) where P n t k 2 T is shaft power, in watts (W), is the measured speed or the speed calculated using measured slip, in r/min, is 9.549 for torque in Newton meters (N*m), is the torque , in N-m. See Equation (1 1) if dynamometer correction is required. T = T t ±T D (ID where T t is a measured machine shaft torque, in N*m, Tp is the dynamometer correction from Equation (1 2), in N-m. NOTE— In Equation (11), use the plus sign for motoring and the minus sign for generating. The terms motoring and generating refer to the action of the machine under test. 5.6.1.2 Dynamometer correction A dynamometer no-load test combined with a machine no-load test can be used to determine the dynamom- eter correction to compensate for coupling and bearing friction losses of the dynamometer. This test is not generally necessary when the load on the test machine is measured using a torque transducer in line with the shaft of the machine because the low coupling losses do not significantly affect efficiency. The machine is operated as a motor at rated voltage while coupled to the dynamometer and all electrical power removed from the dynamometer. The electrical input power, voltage, current, slip or speed, torque, and stator winding resistance or stator winding temperature shall be recorded. The machine is then uncoupled from the dyna- mometer and operated at no load at rated voltage with the electrical input power, voltage, current, slip or speed, and stator winding resistance or stator winding temperature again recorded. Test data from a no-load test point at rated voltage (see 5.5) may be used for the no-load data when it is not practical to uncouple the machine from the dynamometer for this test. The dynamometer correction, in N*m, is determined from Equation (12). k-> x Pa-Pb (12) where P A ~ (Pin A ~ PsiRA ~~ P h) x ~ s .4) P B ~ \P'inB ~ Ps/RB ™ P h* and (13) (14) °For other units of measure, see Annex D. 14 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 112-2004 To is the correction to be applied the load torque before performing the power calculation of 5.6.1 .1 , P inA is input power, in W, when the machine under test is operated as a motor when coupled to a dynamometer with the dynamometer armature circuit open, (Test A), Psira is the stator PR loss, in W, during Test A, sa is slip, in p.u., during Test A, Ta is the torque, in N-m, registered by the dynamometer during Test A, iia is the measured speed or the speed calculated using measured slip, in r/min, during Test A, PinB is the input power, in W, during a no load test at rated voltage, (Test B), PsiRB is the stator PR loss, in W, during a no load test at rated voltage, (Test B), P h is the core loss, in W, during a no load test at rated voltage, ko is 9.549 for torque in N-m. 5.6.2 Direct loading with no torque measurement To obtain the required data in Efficiency Test Method E, it is necessary to couple, belt, or gear the machine to a variable load and then perform the test as described in 5.6. A reading of torque at each load point is not required. The stator winding resistance for each load point can be estimated by comparing the temperature rise measured by an embedded temperature detector, a temperature sensor located on the stator coil end, or the air outlet temperature rise, with corresponding temperature rise measurements obtained as steady-state values during a temperature test. When no temperature test is performed on this or on a duplicate machine, the calculations in the efficiency analysis are made with the stator winding resistance corrected to the total specified winding temperature assumed for the test. See 3.3.2, item c). 5.6.3 Duplicate machine loading The load test for Efficiency Test Method C utilizes two duplicate machines coupled together. Varying the frequency of the voltage applied to one machine controls the load level and the direction of power flow between machines. This procedure is presented in 6.6. 5.7 Stray-load loss The stray-load loss is that portion of the total loss in a machine not accounted for by the sum of the friction and windage loss, the stator PR loss, the rotor PR loss, and the core loss. 5.7.1 Indirect measurement The stray-load loss is determined indirectly by measuring the total losses, and subtracting from these losses the sum of the friction and windage, core loss, stator PR loss, and rotor PR loss. The remaining value is the stray-load loss. The indirect measurement procedure is used in Efficiency Test Methods B, Bl , C, and C/F (see 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, and 6.9). 5.7.2 Direct measurement Direct measurement of the stray-load loss is used in efficiency methods E, F, and E/F (see 6.7, 6.8, and 6.9). The fundamental frequency and the high-frequency components of the stray-load loss are determined and the sum of these two components is the total stray-load loss. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Al! rights reserved. 1 5 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 5.7.2.1 Stray-load loss at fundamental frequency The stray-load loss occurring at fundamental frequency is determined by applying balanced polyphase voltage to the stator-winding terminals with the rotor removed. The electrical input minus the stator I 2 R loss at test temperature is equal to the fundamental frequency stray -load loss. During this test, bearing brackets and other structural parts in which current might be induced shall be in place. The currents used in making this test and that described in 5.7.2.2 are identified as /,, with values established by Equation (15) for magnitudes covering the range of loads from 0.25 to 1 .5 times rated load, as indicated by the appropriate test procedure. Vary the applied voltage to obtain the established currents and record input power and current and the winding temperature. 1, = J{P^lf) (15) where It is the value of stator winding current, in A, during stray-load loss test, Iq is the value of no-load current, in A (see 5 .5 .2.), / is the operating value of stator line current, in A, for which stray-load loss is to be determined. 5.7.2.2 Stray-load loss at high frequency The stray -load loss occurring at high frequencies is determined by a reverse rotation test. With the motor completely assembled, apply balanced polyphase voltages at rated frequency at the stator winding terminals. The rotor is then driven by external means at or near synchronous speed in the direction opposite to the sta- tor field rotation and the electrical input to the stator winding is measured. CAUTION To prevent overheating during this test of machines with unidirectional cooling systems, it is recommended that such machines be driven by an external means at or near synchronous speed in the normal direction for proper ven- tilation and that the power connections to the stator he reversed to have the stator field rotation opposite to that of the mechanical rotation. Record the electrical input to the stator during the test. The mechanical power required to drive the rotor is measured both with and without current in the stator winding. A balanced polyphase voltage is applied to the stator winding to obtain the same values of current magnitude as used in 5.7.2.1 . The magnitude of the currents must be the same. For wound-rotor motors, the rotor terminals shall be short-circuited. At each current point, measure and record the mechanical power to drive the motor, the electrical input power and c urrent, and the winding temperature. Record mechanical power input at zero input current. NOTE-The low power factors encountered during the tests specified in 5.7.2.1 and 5.7.2.2 make it imperative that phase angle error corrections be applied to all wattmeter readings. Refer to IEEE Std 120-1989. 5.7.2.3 Stray-load loss calculation The st ray -load loss is determined by combining the above fundamental frequency and the high-frequency components. The stray-load loss, P$ L , in W, is shown in Equation (16). P S l = Psu + P SI , (16) where f*SLs = (A ~ stator P-R loss), in W, and is the fundamental frequency stray-load loss, 1 6 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 112-2004 P SLr = (P r - P m ) - (P rr - P SLs ~ stator I 2 R loss), in W, and is the high-frequency loss, P m is the mechanical power, in W, required to drive rotor without voltage being applied at stator winding terminals, P r is the mechanical power, in W, required to drive rotor with voltage applied at stator winding terminals, P rr is the electrical input, in W, to stator winding during reverse-rotation test, P s is the electrical input, in W, to stator winding with rotor removed. Stator I 2 R loss shall be calculated as in Equation (2) using the current and resistance at each point. 5.7.2.4 Smoothing the test data Smooth the raw data; (P r - P m ) 9 P s and P rr \ from the tests of 5.7.2.1 and 5.7.2.2 using a series of three regression analyses. Each regression analysis is of the log of a test power vs. the log of the test current. The result of these analyses is shown in Equation (17) through Equation (39). (17) (18) (19) A is the y intercept on a log-log plot (a constant), TV is the slope on a log-log plot (approximately 2), l t is the observed line current during the stray -loss test, in amperes. If the data are accurate, each curve will conform to a square-law relationship between power and current. Thus, the correlation factor from the regression and exponent for each curve both serve as indicators of data accuracy. 5.7.2.5 Calculating stray-load loss at a specified point Determine an approximate value of rotor 2current /S corresponding to the rated value of stator line current, /, as in Equation (20). Pr~ ■p m = M*/ P s : = mi,) Prr = M'/ where ^Jp-il (20) where / is the rated value of stator line current, in A, /o is the value of no-load stator current, in A. Using the value of rotor current 1\, calculate a value of stray -load loss P'sl for three-phase machines as follows in Equation (21); p*sl= A } (r 2 f ] + 2A 2 (r 2 f 2 ~A 3 (r 2 f 3 ~3x {r 2 f x (2/?,,-/e lr ) (21) Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 1 7 IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR where P'sl is the value of stray-load loss, in W, for approximate value of rotor current corresponding to rated load, 7*2 is the approximate value of rotor current, in amperes, corresponding to rated load from Equation (20), R\ s is the stator resistance per phase, in ohms, during the rotor removed test at test temperature (see 5.7.2.1), R\ r is the stator resistance per phase, in ohms, during the reverse rotation test at test temperature (see 5.7.2.2). NOTE— The resistance values above are per phase values that are equal to one half of the line-to-line values. The value of stray-load loss, Psl> for any load point is calculated as shown in Equation (22). P SL =^f (22) The value of rotor current for each load point to be considered in the efficiency analysis is determined by Equation (23). >i = V^o 2 (23) where / is the value of stator line current, in A, for which stray-load loss is to be determined, }{) is the value of no-load current, in A. 5.7.3 Alternate direct method for wound-rotor motors This method is used with Efficiency Test Methods E, F, and E/F (see 6.7, 6.8, and 6.9). In this method, the rotor is excited with direct current, and the stator winding terminals are short-circuited with ammeters included to read the stator current. The rotor is driven by external means at or near synchronous speed. The rotor excitation is adjusted until the current circulating in the stator winding has the value for which a stray- load loss determination is desired. The mechanical power required to drive the rotor with excitation, P r ^ and without excitation, P m , is measured and the stray-load loss, P$l, is calculated as shown in Equation (24). P sl - p r - p m _ statorwinding/ 2 /? loss (24) If six load points are used, the accuracy can be improved by plotting stray-load loss vs, stator winding current squared and by following a smoothing procedure similar to that used in 5.7.2.4. The stator I 2 R in Equation (24) is at the temperature during the test. 5.7.4 Assumed stray-load loss An assumed value of stray-load loss is used with Efficiency Test Methods El, Fl, and El/Fl (see 6.7, 6,8, and 6.9). If the stray-load loss is not measured and it is acceptable by applicable standards or by contract specifications, the value of stray-load loss at rated load may be assumed to be the value as shown in Table 2, For other than rated load, it shall be assumed that the stray-load loss, Psl, is proportional to the square of the rotor current and a value can be calculated using Equation (22) with P^l equal to the assumed value from Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Table 2— Assumed values for stray-load loss IEEE Std 112-2004 Machine rating kW Stray-load loss percent of rated load 1-90 1 .8% 91-375 1 .5% 376-1850 1 .2% 1851 and greater 0.9% Table 2, P 2 equal to the rotor current corresponding to rated load, and h being the rotor current at the load where the stray-power loss is to be determined. 5.8 Temperature test 5.8.1 Purpose Temperature tests are made to determine the temperature rise of certain parts of the machine above the ambient temperature when running under a specified loading condition. Subclauses 5,8.2 through 5.8.5 are guides for the test and for the treatment of the data. 5.8.2 General instructions The machine shall be shielded from air currents coming from pulleys, belts, and other machines. A very slight current of air may cause great discrepancies in the temperature test results. Conditions that result in rapid change of ambient air temperature shall not be considered satisfactory for temperature tests. Sufficient floor space shall be provided between machines to allow free circulation of air. 5.8.2.1 Measuring devices Temperature measuring devices shall be in accordance with IEEE Std 119-1974. At the start of the temperature test, all instruments shall be checked to make certain that there are no appreciable instrument errors due to stray field effects. 5.8.2.2 Temperature of rotors and other parts of totally enclosed machines The temperature of rotors and other parts of totally enclosed machines, for which the thermometer method is used, shall be obtained after shutdown by applying the thermometer to the hottest parts that can be made quickly accessible by removing covers. 5.8.3 Loading method The loading method for making the temperature test shall be one of the following: a) Actual loading method b) Primary-superposed equivalent method c) Forward stall equivalent method Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 5.8.3.1 Actual loading method The actual loading method is one in which the machine is loaded as a motor or generator under the rated (or desired) condition. 5.8.3.2 Primary-superposed equivalent loading method Primary-superposed equivalent loading method is one in which the machine is operated at no-load from a main power source and with a low-voltage auxiliary power of different frequency superposed. A typical configuration is shown in Figure 1. The phase rotation of the auxiliary power shall be chosen to have the same direction as that of the main power. Generally, temperature rises are determined by running with the superposed power supplied at a frequency 10 Hz below rated frequency, and with the voltage so adjusted that the current to the machine is equal to the rated value. Rated Frequency Primary Power Source — moc?- Series Transformer To Machine Under Test Lower Frequency Auxiliary Power Source Metering Location Figure 1— Typical connection for superposed equivalent loading NOTES 1-When the loading for the temperature test is the superposed equivalent loading method, the slip loss does not apply, and a tested value of rotor P-R loss, per 5.3, cannot be obtained. Therefore, when equivalent loading is used, calculated rotor Aft s h a ]j be used in determining efficiency by the segregated loss method. See 6.6. 2-Inasmuch as there are oscillatory torques applied to the stator and rotor of the machine supplied with power at two dif- ferent frequencies, vibration will be abnormal during this condition, and normal criteria for vibration do not apply. Vibration should be monitored and compared against acceptable limits for the machine being tested. After the machine has been heated, the auxiliary frequency can be removed and vibration can be measured with rated frequency and volt- age applied to determine the vibration of the machine operating at normal running temperature. The machine will cool rapidly after removing the auxiliary frequency. Therefore, temperature should be monitored by thermocouple to ensure that vibration is measured while the motor is within 25% of normal operating temperature. 5.8.3.3 Forward stall equivalent loading method The forward stall (also known as forward short circuit) loading method is one in which the machine to be tested is driven at rated speed in its normal direction of rotation by an auxiliary drive motor while the terminals of the motor under test are connected to a reduced voltage fixed frequency supply with phase sequence selected to give rotation in the normal direction. Generally, the supply frequency is 20% to 25% less than the machine rated (nameplate) frequency. The auxiliary drive motor should have a power rating of at least 10% that of the motor under test. With the auxiliary drive motor driving the coupled system at rated speed, the voltage at the machine terminals is adjusted until the line current equals the rated current. The machine under test is then operating as an induction generator with a slip of approximately -25% (-0.25 p.u.). 20 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 112-2004 With the reduced voltage on the machine, the stator iron losses are lower than under actual loading conditions of 5.8.3.1. To compensate for this difference, the test is supplemented by two no-load temperature tests at rated frequency, one at rated supply voltage and one at the stator voltage used during the forward stall test. The difference between the stator temperature rises in these two tests is added to temperature rise measured during the forward stall test and the resultant rise is to be considered as the total temperature rise. NOTE— During the load application phase, as the supply voltage is raised from zero, the current should first reduce and then reverse. If the current increases without this initial reversal, the phase sequence of the machine relative to the sup- ply is incorrect. If this occurs, stop the test, change the phase sequence, and restart the test. 5.8.4 Procedure The machine may be loaded by one of the methods outlined in 5.8.3. The loading may be determined by direct measurement of output or input. A machine having multiple ratings (such as a multispeed or oil-well service machine) shall be tested at the rating that produces the greatest temperature rise. Where this cannot be predetermined, the machine shall be tested at each rating. A dual-frequency machine may be tested at whichever frequency is available. If both frequencies are available, it should be tested at the frequency that results in the maximum temperature rise. Unless otherwise stipulated by the efficiency test method, a machine having a service factor greater than 1 .0 shall be tested at the service factor load to establish that the machine meets insulation class temperature limits, except when temperature rise at a specified loading forms part of the machine rating. However, the temperature rise at 1 .0 service factor shall be used in calculating machine performance in accordance with 3.3.2. When the temperature test is at the service factor load rather than rated load (1.0 service factor), the temperature rise by resistance of the motor at rated load can be derived by varying the temperature rise by the square of the current. For the efficiency calculations, the total temperature (specified temperature) will be the rise at rated load plus 25 °C. When the analysis shows that the temperature test was performed near but not at the rated load, Equation (25) also may be used to adjust the test temperature rise to a rated load temperature rise. If the test load is below rated load, this adjustment must be made. Te mp er a ture Rise med — Te mp erature R ise iesx x 5.8.4.1 Initial conditions rated • 'test - (25) Temperature tests on continuously rated machines can be started with the machine at any temperature less than rated temperature. Unless otherwise specified, a test on a short-time rated machine shall commence only when machine parts are within 5 C C of the ambient temperature. 5.8.4.2 Permissible overloading On continuously-rated machines, when a long time is required to attain steady temperature, reasonable (25% to 50%) overloads during the preliminary heating period are permissible in order to shorten the time of test. Any overload shall be removed before the temperature goes above the expected final temperature. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 21 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 5.8.4.3 Temperature measurement The machine should he equipped with devices to measure the temperature of the windings, the stator core, the incoming cold coolant, and the exhaust hot coolant. Each method of measurement, see 4.4, is best suited for particular parts of machine. Thus, in a given test, it may be desirable to use all four methods to measure the temperature in the various parts of the machine. Temperatures taken by the alcohol thermometer method (see 4.4.1.1) may be measured during the temperature tests and, if specified, after shutdown. Local temperature detectors (see 4.4.1.2) may be used to measure the temperature of various parts of the machine during the temperature test. When several local temperature detectors are used to measure the winding temperature, the temperature measurements of all should be recorded, with the maximum of these values reported as the temperature of the winding by local detector. Readings after shutdown are not normally required Temperatures of the windings of machines equipped with embedded detectors should be determined by the embedded-detector method (see 4.4.13) during the temperature test. Temperature measurements of all embedded detectors shall be recorded, and the maximum of these values shall be reported as the temperature of the winding by embedded detector. Readings after shutdown are not normally required. The temperature of the stator (and rotor of wound -rotor machines) winding shall be determined by the winding resistance method (see 4.4.1.4) after shutdown (see 5.8.4.4 and 5.8.4.5). The resistance may be measured between any two line terminals for which a reference value of resistance has been measured at a known temperature. If equipment is available to measure the winding resistance during the temperature test, this may be used if the results have the necessary accuracy. Other temperature sensing devices on the machine such as bearing and/or lubricant temperature detectors should also be noted and recorded. 5.8.4.4 Termination of test The test shall be continued for the specified time (for machines not continuously rated), or until constant temperature rises have been reached. For continuously rated machines, readings of machine input, machine output (as applicable), and all temperatures (including ambient temperature) shall be taken at intervals of 30 minutes or less. For noncontinuously rated machines, readings shall be taken at intervals consistent with the time rating. For continuous rated machines, the temperature test shall continue until there is 1 °C or less change in temperature rise above the ambient temperature over a 30 -minute period. If the winding resistance is measured during the temperature test, see 5.8.4.3; take a reading at the time of shutdown, provided the results have the necessary accuracy. Measurements after shutdown are not required. 5.8.4.5 Resistance at shutdown The winding resistance shall be measured after shutdown and this shall be used to determine the final temperature of the machine and its temperature rise. This measurement requires a quick shutdown of the machine at the end of the temperature test and quick application of the leads from the resistance measuring device. A carefully planned procedure and an adequate number of people are required to obtain readings soon enough to give reliable data. If the initial resistance reading is obtained within the time interval indicated in Table 3, this reading is accepted as the resistance measurement. If the initial resistance reading cannot be made within the time delay given by the table, it shall be made as soon as possible, and additional resistance readings shall be taken at intervals of 30-60 seconds for a minimum of 10 readings. 22 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 Table 3— Maximum time delay in resistance measurements Machine rating Time delay after switching off power (seconds) KVA k\\ 50 or less 38 or less 30 Above 50 to 200 Above 38 to 150 90 Above 200 Above 150 120 A curve of these readings shall be plotted as a function of time, and shall be extrapolated to the time delay given by Table 3 for the rating of the machine. A semi -logarithmic plot is recommended, in which resistance is plotted on the logarithmic scale. The value of resistance thus obtained shall be considered as the resistance at shutdown. If successive measurements show increasing resistance after shutdown, the highest value shall be taken. Where the first reading cannot be taken within twice the time delay given by Table 3, the time shall be subject to agreement. 5.8.4.6 Care in measurement Extreme care shall be taken to secure accurate resistance measurements because a small error in measuring resistance will cause a comparatively large error in determining the temperature. 5.8.5 Temperature rise When the machine is ventilated by the immediately surrounding air, the temperature rise is the observed machine temperature minus the ambient temperature. When the machine is ventilated by air obtained from a remote source or a heat exchanger, the temperature rise is the observed machine temperature minus the temperature of the air entering the machine or exiting the heat exchanger when part of the machine. Machines may be tested at any altitude not exceeding 1000 m and with cooling air temperatures between I0°C and 40°C without correction of temperature rise. NOTE— At higher altitudes, the temperature rise will be greater than at sea level. While an exact conversion is not avail- able, a commonly used method allows for the influence of altitude. For each 100 m above 1000 m, the temperature rise is reduced by J % to obtain the rise expected at sea level . 5.8.5.1 Calculation of temperature The temperature of the winding, using the winding resistance, is calculated using Equation (26). x (^ + /c i) -* (26) where tt Rr Rb is the total temperature of winding, in °C, when R } was measured, is the resistance measured during test, in ohms, is the reference value of resistance, in ohms, previously measured at known temperature t^ t is the temperature, in °C, of winding when reference value of resistance /?£ was measured, is 234.5 for 100% International Annealed Copper Standard (I ACS) conductivity copper, or 225 for aluminum, based on a volume conductivity of 62%. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 23 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR For other winding materials, a suitable value of k\ (inferred temperature for zero resistance) shall be used. The temperature obtained by using Equation (26) is the total temperature of the winding at the time of the test. If this is the usable shutdown resistance reading, the results will be the total temperature of the winding at the test ambient temperature. If this ambient differs from the reference ambient, see 3.3.1, adjust the total temperature by subtracting the test ambient from the calculated total temperature and then adding 25 °C to the difference value just obtained. If the temperature test was at the rated load, the resultant sum is the total winding temperature in a 25 °C ambient and is the specified temperature to be used in the efficiency analysis. See 3.3.2 a), if the test was at other than rated load, see 5.8.4 for the procedure to correct to rated load. 5.9 Equivalent circuit The operating characteristics in Efficiency Test Methods F and Fl (see 6.9) are calculated based on the equivalent circuit of an induction machine shown in Figure 2. This circuit is also used in determining the rotor current used in determining the stray -load losses used in other efficiency test methods. Figure 2 — Equivalent circuit The machine quantities associated with the equivalent circuit and with Equation (27) through Equation (58) are as follows: V\ is phase voltage, in V Vi is rotor phase voltage referred to the stator, in V /' is frequency, in Hz I\ is line or stator current, in A h is rotor current referred to stator, in A I m is magnetizing current, in A If e is core loss current, in A m is number of phases R\ is stator resistance, in ohms Ih is rotor resistance referred to stator, in ohms Rf e is core loss resistance, in ohms Gf e is core loss conductance, in Siemens X\ is stator leakage reactance, in ohms X2 is rotor leakage reactance referred to stator, in ohms 24 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. !EEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 12-2004 Xm is magnetizing reactance, in ohms Bm is magnetizing susceptance, in Siemens P is power, in watts Ph is core loss, in watts Pf is friction and windage loss, in watts Q is reactive power, in vars Z is impedance per phase, in ohms Z2 is rotor impedance per phase referred to stator, in ohms s is slip in p. u. Subscripts are as follows: = quantities pertaining to no-load L = quantities pertaining to impedance test NOTES: 1 —For three-phase machines, the per phase wye stator resistance is one-half of the terminal-to-terminal resistance. 2— For three-phase machines, the wye phase voltage, V } , is the line-to-line voltage divided by J 3 . The machine parameters in the equivalent circuit are derived from test data recorded during a no-load test of 5.5 and one of the impedance tests described in 5.9.1 . The equivalent circuit represents one phase of a three- phase, wye-connected machine and is usable even if the machine under test has a delta internal connection. Rotor voltage, current, resistance, and reactance values all are referred to the stator and are not true rotor values but can be used throughout this standard wherever rotor parameters are specified. Accurate prediction of machine characteristics in the normal operating range will depend primarily upon the closeness by which R2 represents the actual rotor resistance to currents of low frequency and, secondarily, upon the closeness by which X2 represents the actual rotor leakage reactance to currents of low frequency. Therefore, the most careful procedure during testing to determine the rotor characteristics at low frequency is imperative. Calculation results may be reported on Form 9.14. 5.9.1 Impedance tests Readings of voltage, current, electrical input power, and stator resistance or stator winding temperature are to be taken at one or more frequencies, voltages, and/or loads. These data are referred to as the impedance data. If the machine being tested has a wound rotor, the rotor is to be short-circuited for the test. The tests for reactance shall be conducted at rated load current. It is important that the value of reactance used in the equivalent circuit calculation is at the correct value of saturation and deep bar effect; otherwise, the calculated power factor will be found to be higher than the true value. The reactance and impedance shall be determined at the temperature of the machine at the time of the test. Resistance values shall be corrected to the specified temperature before being reported as an equivalent circuit parameter. The impedance data shall be determined from one of the following methods: a) Method 1 —A three-phase locked-rotor impedance test at maximum of 25% of rated frequency and at rated current. See 5.9.2 for details. b) Method 2— Three-phase locked-rotor impedance tests at three frequencies; one at rated frequency, one at approximately 50% of rated frequency, and one at a maximum of 25% of rated frequency, all at rated current. Curves shall be developed from these three test points and used to determine the values of total reactance and rotor resistance at the required reduced frequency. See 5.9.3 for details. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 25 IEEE Std 11 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR c) Method J— An impedance test at a slip speed approximating the desired reduced rotor frequency. In this method, the motor is run uncoupled or coupled to a reduced load, and the voltage is reduced to give approximately full load slip point/ The slip shall be measured carefully. See 5.9.4 for details. d) Method 4— When none of the previous methods is practical, the following test may be utilized: a three-phase, locked-rotor impedance test at reduced voltage at rated frequency resulting in approxi- mately rated current and a test under load. See 5.9.5 for details. 5.9.2 Calculation of parameters— Method 1 5.9.2.1 Locked rotor test The rotor of a squirrel -cage motor is a symmetrical bar winding; therefore, the impedance of the motor is practically the same for any position of the rotor relative in the stator. The impedance of a wound-rotor motor varies with the position of the rotor relative to the stator. It is therefore necessary when performing a locked-rotor impedance test to determine the rotor position that results in an average value of impedance. Before taking readings on wound-rotor machines, the rotor shall be short-circuited. The angular distance through which it is necessary to observe the current variation shall be determined by allowing the rotor to revolve slowly and observing the stator current, noting the distance the rotor must move for the stator current to complete a cycle. For machines having an integral number of slots per pole per phase in both rotor and stator, this distance will be equal to two- thirds of a pole pitch for three-phase machines. For machines having fractional slot windings, the angular distance may be as much as a full pole pitch. The rotor of a wound-rotor motor shall be blocked so that it cannot rotate freely, but can be moved; and the impressed voltage shall be increased gradually until a current of approximately rated value is obtained. Voltage and current on all phases shall be read and recorded, and the voltage in the different phases shall be balanced. Holding the same voltage, the rotor shall be turned slowly and the minimum and maximum values of current during a complete cycle shall be recorded. The rotor shall then be blocked for the impedance test on the position that gives a current equal to the average of the minimum and maximum values previously recorded. For the locked-rotor test, take simultaneous readings of voltage and current in all phases and of power input at several levels of voltage in order to establish the value with special care in the neighborhood of full-load current. The stator winding temperature or stator winding resistance shall also be recorded. Care shall be taken not to overheat the windings. Taking the highest readings first and the lower readings in succession will help to equalize the temperature. 5.9.2.2 Calculations Plot curves using volts as abscissas and the amperes and the input power as ordinates. The curve of amperes vs. volts is usually a straight line, curving slightly upward at the higher values. On closed slot rotors, however, there is also a distinct curve upward at low voltage. Derive the value of voltage and power input to determine the total reactance and rotor resistance at the required level of current from these curves. Determine the rotor resistance, /?2, and the total leakage reactance, X\ + Xn, from these data using the Equation (27) through Equation (38). The calculations start by assuming a relationship between X\ and X%. When design details are available, use the calculated ratio X\IX2- Otherwise, use 7 This test is described herein as being run at a reduced voltage. This is because it is recognized that when using the more readily avail- able small loading devices, a reduced voltage must be used to obtain the required full load slip test point. With suitable loading, this test may be performed at higher voltages; up to and including rated voltage. 26 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 X, ~ l .0 for Design A, Design D, and wound rotor motors = 0.67 for Design B motors x, y\ =0.43 for Design C motors NOTE-Design A, BX, and D motors are defined in NEMA MG- 1-2003 [B3]. Calculate the reactive power of complete motor at no load, Qo, and at the conditions of the impedance test, Ql- <2o = J(mVM 2 -PS (27) and Ql = ^rnV x J XL Y-P\ (28) The per phase voltage, V] , as used in Equation (27) and Equation (28) for a three phase machine is T/ _ Line-to-Line voltage v \ - r ft (29) See Figure 2 for identification of the quantities and subscripts in the above and in the following equations. Calculate the magnetizing reactance Xm- Xm ~ m V\ i u x v xj Calculate the stator leakage reactance X\ at test frequency. X\L = Ql \( x \\ x \ mf- L x W^W*' 1 x 2 i X M . _\x 2 J x M _ Determine the stator leakage reactance at rated frequency. x, = L xjf 1L JL Equation (30), Equation (31), and Equation (32) may be solved as follows: 1) Solve Equation (30) for Xm, assuming a value of X\/Xm and X\ 2) Solve Equation (31) for X\l, using the same value of X\/Xm as above (30) (31) (32) Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ail rights reserved. 27 IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 3) Solve Equation (32) for X\ 4) Solve Equation (30) for Xm, using X\ from Equation (32) and a ratio of X\IXm from Equation (30) and Equation (32) 5) Continue iteration solution until stable values of X\ and X^f are obtained within 0.1% B M = y- (33) X 2L = ^±- (34) ® A X 2 = jrxX 2L (35) G A x (i + ^) 2 (36) /l mV] Q \ Xj where Ph is the total core loss, in W, as determined in 5.5.5. (37) Rfe = 1 G fe RlL = W? # 't-**)"{>+%)'-fjd'*<xM m where R]L is equal to 1/2 of the line-to-line stator winding resistance, in ohms, at test temperature. Correct R\i and i?2L to the specified temperature using Equation (3) and identify as R\ and Ri- 5.9.3 Calculation of parameters— Method 2 When using Method 2, perform the tests in 5.9.1 and use the calculation procedure in 5.9.2.2 to find the rotor resistance, R21 and total leakage reactance, X\i + X^l, at each of the three frequencies. Develop curves of the values of rotor resistance and total leakage reactance vs. frequency that can be used to determine the val- ues at the required reduced operating frequency. The resulting value for rotor resistance and the values for leakage inductances, after conversion to operating frequency, are then used in the equivalent circuit to deter- mine machine performance. 5.9.4 Calculation of parameters— Method 3 5.9.4.1 Reduced voltage slip test The rotor resistance, R2, and the leakage reactance, A'2, at reduced frequency may be obtained from readings (volts, watts, amperes, slip, stator winding temperature or stator winding resistance) at a slip speed approximating the desired reduced rotor frequency. In this method, the machine is run uncoupled or coupled to a reduced load and at a voltage that gives desired slip speed. A generator can be operated as a motor or 28 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 to a reduced load and at a voltage that gives desired slip speed. A generator can be operated as a motor or can be coupled to driving equipment at a speed above synchronous speed that gives the desired slip while at a reduced voltage to reduce the electrical output. The slip shall be measured very carefully. 5.9.4.2 Calculations With data from the no-load saturation test, see 5.5, calculate the total reactance per phase for each test point and draw a curve of total reactance per phase vs. no-load volts per phase. See example in Figure 3. The high- est point on this curve is used as the total no-load reactance per phase, X\ + Xm, in calculations of the reduced voltage slip test. CD / F D C/) C O. G / s— / CD Q_ —^ A CD O c 03 CD E CD S_ 2 B , A O A A Volts per phase Figure 3— Total reactance from no load test Quantities associated with Figure 3 are as follows: A is rated volts. B is volts at reduced voltage slip test. CDE is curve of total reactance from no-load test. F is reactance corresponding to the highest point, D, of the test curve CDE. This value is used as the total reactance, X x + X M , in calculations of the reduced voltage slip test. G is total reactance, X] + X M , to be used in determining X M for use in the equivalent circuit calcula- tions after X { , X 2 , and R 2 are determined from the calculations of the reduced voltage test. If the machine was operated as a motor in performing the reduced voltage slip test then the measured electrical power when used in the calculations should be specified as having a positive value. If the machine was tested as a generator, the measured electrical power used in the calculations is specified as having a negative value, since it is opposite in direction to the power flow as illustrated in Figure 2. From the reduced voltage slip test data, calculate the total impedance per phase, Z and the power factor, Pf\ (which will be negative for generator operation). The phase angle, 8|, of the input current, the total apparent resistance per phase, R y and the total apparent reactance per phase, X, can be found as shown in Equation (39) through Equation (41): 1 = -arc cos (PF) R - Zxcos(~9 1 ) X ^ Zx sin(-ej) (39) (40) (41) Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 29 IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR The value of X determined from Equation (41) is used as a first estimate for the sum (X\ + Xj). A value for the ratio {X\iXi) is obtained from design details, when known, or from 5.9.2.2. Based on this sum and ratio an initial estimate for the value of X\ can be calculated as shown in Equation (42). © A', = X '— (42) '♦© Using the value of total no-load reactance, (X\ + Xm)> from point D of Figure 3, the value of the magnetizing reactance, Xm, can be approximated as shown in Equation (43). X M = (X X +X M )-X X (43) From the data obtained from the reduced voltage slip test, calculate V 2 - 7[ F i-A(^i cos0 i- Ar i sin9 i)] 2 + [ / i( /? ] sine i + ^i cos 9i)] 2 (44) The resistance, R h shall be corrected to the temperature during the test before use in Equation (44) and in following equations. When calculating the phase angle 02, the value is that for the quadrant associated with the signs of the values of the numerator and denominator terms in Equation (45), 6. = arctan L1 ~ J ! ] ^~~ (45) V x -l x (R x cose^^sine,) K = y (46) V 2 R fe = -± (47) It h G fe = ~- (48) R fe he = if ( 49 ) Calculate I 2 - a/[/jCOs0| -/ c sin8 2 -/^cos9 2 ] + [--/j sin0 1 +/ e cos8 2 + /^sin0 2 ]" (50) x 2 = -y«™*>-M-' 2 .x» (51) X = X } +X 2 (52) 30 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 112-2004 Repeat Equation (42) through Equation (52) using the initial ratio of X\ 1 X 2 as used in Equation (42) and the new value of X from Equation (52) and continue until stable values of X\ and X 2 are achieved within 0.1%. Z 2 = h (53) 1 2 R 2 = sjizpif) (54) Then, using the value of total reactance, (X| + Xm), from the rated voltage no-load test point C in Figure 3, calculate X M = (X,+X M )-X l (55) B M = f (56) V 2 = ^[Fj-Z^^^ose^^sine^^ + ^^jsine^^cose,)] 2 (57) o fe - -^ (58) The values obtained in Equation (39), Equation (51), Equation (56), and Equation (58) are used in the equivalent circuit calculations. The rotor resistance, R 2 , from Equation (54) and stator resistance, R\, shall be corrected to the specified temperature using Equation (3) before being used in the equivalent circuit. 5.9.5 Calculation of parameters— Method 4 5.9.5.1 Locked-rotor and load point test The following tests at rated frequency are required: a) No-load test per 5 .5 . b) Locked-rotor test at reduced voltage following the procedure in 5.9 .2. 1 . c) Operating the machine uncoupled (or coupled to some reduced load) with the voltage reduced to give approximately full-load slip. The slip must be determined very carefully. For each test, record the volts, watts, amperes, slip, and stator winding resistance or stator winding temperature. 5.9.5.2 Calculations The values of X\, X 2 , Xm, and Rf e are determined from the no-load and locked-rotor tests at rated frequency following the procedure in 5.9.2. The value of R 2 at reduced frequency is obtained from the test data recorded for operation at approximately full-load slip. The full-load slip is determined using nameplate speed or design data. After X\ has been determined from the locked-rotor impedance tests, see 5.9.2.2, the value of R 2 is obtained from the full-load slip test as follows: -— Calculate V? using Equation (44). Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR — Calculate 02 using Equation (45). — Calculate if e and I e using Equation (49) and Equation (46). — Calculate h using Equation (50). — Calculate rotor impedance, Zi using Equation (53). Calculate Ri using Equation (54) and correct to the specified temperature using Equation (3). 5.10 Brush-contact loss This measurement is used in efficiency methods F and Fl (see 6.8). For wound-rotor machines, the brush contact loss is determined by the product of the calculated secondary current and a voltage drop. The voltage drop in all brushes of the same phase (between rings on a three-ring machine) may be assumed to be 1.0 V for carbon or graphite brushes, and 0.3 V for metal-carbon brushes. 5.11 Power factor 5.11.1 Indirectly obtained When determining the machine performance characteristics, the power factor of the machine shall be determined for each load point using Equation (59). PF - f (59) J3 x VI where P is the machine electrical power, in W. input for a motor or output for a generator, PF is the machine power factor, V is input, line-to-line voltage, in volts, / is input current, in A. NOTE — The power factor, PF, obtained with Equation (59) is a numeric value, i.e., 0.x x. To obtain in percent form, multiply the numeric value by 100. 5.11.2 Directly obtained When using the two- wattmeter method to measure input power of three-phase machines, the power factor, PF, in percent, may be checked by Equation (60). PF - lQ0 — (60) n + ir-"*' where P\ is the higher reading, Pn is the lower reading. If the wattmeter for the Pn reading gives a negative reading, it shall be considered a negative quantity. If a polyphase wattmeter is used, the values of the two- wattmeter readings can be obtained by opening separately each of the voltage coil circuits of the polyphase wattmeter. 32 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 12-2004 With pulsating loads, the power factor obtained by the direct method may be higher than that obtained by the indirect method. The higher value shall be taken as the correct reading. The difference is due to the inclusion in the volt-amperes of the pulsating component of current, which is a function of the load rather than of the machine itself. The power factor determined from the ratio of wattmeter readings is not affected by the pres- ence of pulsating current. 5.11.3 Equivalent circuit calculation The power factor, in percent, may be determined from the equivalent circuit by multiplying the total resistance by 100 and then dividing the result by the total impedance. 6. Determination of efficiency 6.1 General Efficiency is the ratio of output power to total input power. Output power is equal to input power minus the losses. Therefore, if two of the three variables (output, input, or losses) are known, the efficiency can be determined by using Equation (61), Equation (62), or Equation (63). efficiency = output power (6]) input power A form commonly used for motors is: efficiency = i"P"t power - losses (62) input power A form commonly used for generators is: efficiency = output power (63) output power + losses Unless otherwise specified, the efficiency shall be determined for rated voltage and frequency. When a load point is available at other than rated voltage, it may be combined with the equivalent circuit (Methods F and Fl) to calculate the performance at rated voltage (see 6.9). 6.2 Efficiency test methods The various methods of efficiency and loss determination are identified as follows: a) Method A Input-output b) Method B Input-output with segregation of losses and indirect measurement of stray -load loss c) Method Bl Input-output with segregation of losses, indirect measurement of stray-load loss and an assumed temperature d) Method C Duplicate machines with segregation of losses and indirect measurement of stray- load loss e) Method E Electric power measurement under load with segregation of losses and direct measurement of stray-load loss Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved. 33 IEEE Std 1 12-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR f) Method El Electric power measurement under load with segregation of losses and assumed value of stray-load loss g) Method. F Equivalent circuit with direct measurement of stray-load loss h) Method Fl Equivalent circuit with assumed value of stray-load loss i) Method C/F Equivalent circuit calibrated per Method C load point with indirect measurement of stray-load loss j) Method E/F Equivalent circuit calibrated per Method E load point with direct measurement of stray-load loss k) Method El /Fl Equivalent circuit calibrated per Method E load point with assumed value of stray- load loss 6.2.1 Guide for choice of efficiency test method The input-output method (Efficiency Test Method A) should be limited to machines with ratings less than l kW. Horizontal machines rated at 1-300 kW should be tested using Efficiency Test Method B, the input-output method with loss segregation. Vertical machines in the range of 1-300 kW should be tested by Efficiency Test Method B if the machine bearing construction permits. If the bearing construction does not permit Method B testing, Method E, El , F, or Fl may be used. Machines rated higher than 300 kW should be tested by Efficiency Test Method B, Bl, C, E, El, F, or Fl depending on the capability of the test facility. When proper test facilities are available, Method B should be selected when the precision and repeatability of this method is required. When practical, load test calibration of the equivalent circuit (Efficiency Test Method C/F, E/F, or El/Fl) provides the confidence level of a full -load test with the simplicity of determining performance at various loads by solution of the equivalent circuit. 6.3 Efficiency Test Method A— Input-output For this method, the efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the measured output power to the measured input power, after temperature and dynamometer corrections, if applicable. 6.3.1 Test procedure 6.3.1.1 Cold resistance With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient temperature. See 5.4. 6.3.1.2 Rated load temperature test Perform a rated load temperature test in accordance with 5.8.3.1 . 6.3.1.3 Test under load The machine is loaded by means of a mechanical brake or dynamometer. See 5.6.1 . 34 Copyright © 2004 iEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 6.3.1.4 Calculations Performance is calculated as shown in Form A in 9.2 with details of the calculations shown in Form A2 in 9.3. Dynamometer correction should be made, if applicable, as shown in 5.6.1.2. The stator I 2 R loss and the slip are to be corrected for temperature as indicated. 6.3.1.5 Temperature correction The stator power is corrected to the specified temperature. The amount of power correction required is determined by Equation (64). p _ [2 R „J2 R (64) where P c is the necessary power correction, in W, I t is the line current, in A, during the test, R t is the average winding resistance, in ohms, at shutdown, R s is Rj corrected to the specified temperature, see Equation (3). The corrected stator power for a motor is the measured electrical power during the test plus P c . The corrected stator power for a generator is the measured electrical power during the test minus P c . The measured slip is corrected to the specified temperature using Equation (9) in 53.2. 6.3.2 Efficiency Use the corrected electrical and the mechanical power values to calculate efficiencies. See 6.1 . 6.4 Efficiency Test Method B- Input-output with loss segregation All data are taken with the machine operating either as a motor or as a generator, depending upon the region of operation for which the efficiency data are required. The apparent total loss (input minus output) is segregated into its various components with stray-load loss defined as the difference between the apparent total loss and the sum of the conventional losses (stator and rotor P-R loss, core loss, and friction and windage loss). The value of stray-load loss thus determined is plotted vs. torque squared, and a linear regression is used to reduce the effect of random errors in the test measurements. The smoothed stray-load loss data are used to calculate the final value of total loss and the efficiency. 6.4.1 Test procedure The individual tests that make up the Method B test method shall be performed in the order listed. It is not necessary that these tests be performed in time succession with each immediately following the previous one. The tests may be performed individually if the operating temperature of the machine is established close to its normal operating temperature for the type of test prior to obtaining the test data. 6.4.1.1 Cold resistance With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient temperature. See 5.4. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 35 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 6.4.1.2 Rated load temperature test A rated load temperature test, using a dynamometer, is to be performed in accordance with 5.8.3.1 . This test is not required when a rated load temperature test had previously been performed on a duplicate machine. Determine the specified temperature for the machine. See 3.3.2 a) or b). 6.4.1.3 Test under load During this test, the machine shall be loaded by a dynamometer, see 5.6.1. The temperature of the stator winding shall be within 10 °C of the hottest temperature reading recorded during the rated load temperature test on this or the duplicate machine prior to the start of recording data for this test. Perform the test as quickly as possible to minimize temperature changes in the machine during testing. When necessary, a dynamometer correction test shall be made. See 5.6.1.2. 6.4.1.4 No-load test Perform a no-load test in accordance with 5.5 and 5.5.1 . 6.4.2 Calculations 6.4.2.1 Calculation form Calculate motor or generator performance using Form B in 9.4 as a guide. The source of each of the items on Form B or the method of its calculation is shown on Form B2 in 9.5. 6.4.2.2 Friction and windage loss See 5.5.4. 6.4.2.3 Core loss See 5.5.5. 6.4.2.4 Stator l 2 R loss See 5.2. This calculation of stator PR losses for each load point shall be accomplished using the average winding resistance. If the average winding resistance is measured at each point during the load test, it can be directly used in the determination of the stator PR loss at that load point. If the winding temperature is obtained by means of local or embedded detectors, these readings shall be converted into an equivalent average value before performing the loss calculations. From the rated load temperature test of 6.4.1.2, obtain the winding resistance at shutdown and the temperature at shutdown by both the winding resistance and by local detector. This should be the same local detector being used during the load test. A value closely approximating the average temperature can then be determined by Equation (65). 1 a = : — (6:>) 'TTD where 36 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Al! rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 12-2004 tj\ is the developed average temperature, in °C, for use in the loss calculations, tjR is the total temperature, in °C, from the shut down of the temperature test, t t is the temperature, in °C, by detector during the load test, trro » s the temperature, in °C, by detector from the shutdown of the temperature test. The average resistance to be used for the stator RR loss can be determined by Equation (3) using Itr - hi, Ia - t} ? and R a equal to the resistance value at temperature test shutdown. This calculation procedure is repeated for each load point. 6.4.2.5 Rotor i 2 R loss See 5.3. The first calculation of rotor PR loss is based on actual speed or slip measurement for each point and no adjustments are required. 6.4.2.6 Apparent total loss The apparent total loss shall be calculated separately for each load point by subtracting the measured output in watts from the measured input in watts. 6.4.2.7 Stray-load loss determination (indirect method) The stray-load loss shall be separately calculated for each load point by subtracting from the apparent total loss the stator PR loss at the temperature of the test, the core loss, the friction and windage loss, and the rotor PR loss corresponding to the measured value of slip. 6.4.2.8 Smoothing of the stray-load loss Smooth the stray-load loss data by using a linear regression analysis based on expressing the stray-load loss as a function of the square of the load torque. The results of the analysis should be as shown in Equation (66). P SL = Af + B (66) where Psl is the stray-load loss, in W, as plotted vs. torque squared, T is the torque, in N*m, A is the slope, B is the intercept with the zero torque line. If the slope is negative, or if the correlation factor is less than 0.9, delete the worst point and repeat the regression analysis. If this increases the correlation factor to 0.9 or larger, use the second regression; if not, or if the slope is still negative, the test is unsatisfactory. Errors in the instrumentation or test readings, or both, are indicated. The source of the error should be investigated and corrected, and the test under load, see 6.4.1 .3. should be repeated. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 37 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 6.4.3 Corrections 6.4.3.1 Corrected stray-load loss The stray-load loss curve of 6.4.2.8 is corrected by shifting the curve to go through the origin while maintaining the original slope. The result of this correction is Equation (67), which is used to determine the corrected value of stray -load loss, Pslc* f° r eacn J° a d point. Pslc^A? (67) where A is the slope of the of the Psl v $- T 1 curve defined in 6.4.2.8, T is the torque, in N-m, for each load point as used in 6.4.2.8. 6.4.3.2 Temperature correction of stator l 2 R loss A corrected stator PR loss for each of the load points is calculated using the average stator resistance corrected to the specified temperature. Using resistance and the total temperature, by resistance, at shutdown from 6,4.1 .2, correct this resistance to the specified temperature using Equation (3). Calculate the loss as in 5.2. 6.4.3.3 Temperature correction of rotor l 2 R loss A corrected rotor PR loss for each of the load points is calculated as in 5.3, Equation (4) or Equation (5), using the value of slip for each of the points corrected to the specified temperature, using Equation (9), and using the corrected value of the stator I 2 R loss, from 6.4.3.2, for each load point. The slip used in Equation (4) or Equation (5), is the slip used in 6.4.2.5 corrected to the specified temperature from the developed average temperature from 6.4.2.4. 6.4.3.4 Corrected total loss A corrected total loss for each of the load points is determined as the sum of the friction and windage loss (see 6.4.2.2), the core loss (see 6.4.2.3), the corrected stray-load loss (see 6.4.3.1), the corrected stator I 2 R loss (see 6.4.3.2), and the corrected rotor fiR loss (see 6.4.3.3). 6.4.3.5 Corrected mechanical power The corrected mechanical (output) power for each of the load points for a motor is equal to the difference between the measured electrical (input) power and the corrected total loss. The corrected mechanical (input) power for a generator is equal to the sum of the measured electrical (output) power and the corrected total loss. 6.4.4 Efficiency Use the measured electrical power and the corrected mechanical power to calculate efficiency. See 6.1 . 6.4.5 Power factor The power factor of the machine shall be determined for each load point using Equation (59). See 5.11. 38 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 6.4.6 Summary of characteristics The summary of characteristics is a listing of the power factor, the efficiency, the speed, and the line current at precise load points. To obtain this information, plot the values from the analysis for the line current, speed, and efficiency vs. the output power. Fit curves to these data and pick off the values for the desired load points. The power factor is computed for each precise load point from its amperes, volts, and input watts as in Equation (59). This summary of machine characteristics is included in Form B. See 9.4. 6.5 Efficiency Test Method B1 —Input-output with loss segregation and assumed temperature All data are taken with the machine operating either as a motor or as a generator, depending upon the region of operation for which the efficiency data are required. The apparent total loss (input minus output) is segregated into its various components with stray-load loss defined as the difference between the apparent total loss and the sum of the conventional losses (stator and rotor P-R loss, core loss, and friction and windage loss). The value of stray-load loss thus determined is plotted vs. torque squared, and a linear regression is used to reduce the effect of random errors in the test measurements. The smoothed stray-load loss data are used to calculate the final value of total loss and the efficiency. 6.5.1 Test procedure The individual tests that make up the Method Bl test method shall be performed in the order listed. It is not necessary that these tests be performed in time succession with each immediately following the previous one. The tests may be performed individually if the operating temperature of the motor is established close to its normal operating temperature for the type of test prior to obtaining the test data. 6.5.1.1 Cold resistance With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient temperature. See 5.4. 6.5.1.2 Temperature A load test to determine temperature rise and total temperature is not performed in Efficiency Test Method Bl . The specified temperature is determined as in 3.3.2 c). 6.5.1.3 No-load test Perform a no-load test in accordance with 5.5 including the bearing loss stabilization step of 5.5.1 . 6.5.1.4 Test under load For this test, the machine shall be loaded by a dynamometer, see 5.6.1. The temperature of the stator winding shall be within 10 °C of the specified temperature, as selected in 6.5.1.2. prior to the start of recording data for this test. Perform the test as quickly as possible to minimize temperature changes in the machine during testing. When necessary, a dynamometer correction test shall be made. See 5.6.1 ,2. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 39 IEEE Std 11 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 6.5.2 Calculations 6.5.2.1 Calculation form Calculate motor or generator performance using Form Bl in 9.6 as a guide. The source of each of the items on Form B 1 or the method of its calculation is shown on Form Bl-2 in 9.7. 6.5.2.2 Friction and windage loss See 5.5.4. 6.5.2.3 Core loss See 5.5.5. 6.5.2.4 Stator l 2 R loss See 5.2. Calculate loss with winding resistance corrected to the test temperature. 6.5.2.5 Rotor l 2 R loss See 5.3. This first calculation of rotor fiR loss is based on actual speed or slip measurement for each point and no adjustments are required. 6.5.2.6 Apparent total loss The apparent total loss shall be calculated separately for each load point by subtracting the measured output in watts from the measured input in watts. 6.5.2.7 Stray-load loss determination (indirect method) 6.5.2.8 Smoothing of the stray-load loss The stray-load loss shall be separately calculated for each load point by subtracting from the apparent total loss the stator I 2 R loss at the temperature of the test, the core loss, the friction and windage loss, and the rotor PR loss corresponding to the measured value of slip. Smooth the stray -load loss data by using a linear regression analysis based on expressing the stray-load loss as a function of the square of the load torque. The results of the analysis should be as shown in Equation (66) in 6.4.2.8. If this analysis shows the slope as negative, or if the correlation factor is less than 0.9, delete the worst point and repeat the regression analysis. If this increases the correlation factor to 0.9 or larger, use the second regression; if not, or if the slope is still negative, the test is unsatisfactory. Errors in the instrumentation or test readings, or both, are indicated. The source of the error should be investigated and corrected, and the test under load, see 6.5.1 .4, should be repeated. 6.5.3 Corrections 6.5.3.1 Corrected stray-load loss The corrected value of stray-load loss, Psic is determined using Equation (67) with T equal to the torque for each of the load points and A is the slope of the function curve as determined in 6.5.2.8. 40 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Alt rights reserved. iEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 12-2004 6.5.3.2 Temperature correction of stator l 2 R loss A corrected stator PR loss for each of the load points is calculated using the average cold stator resistance from 6.5.1 .1 corrected to the specified temperature. Calculate the loss as in 5.2. 6.5.3.3 Temperature correction of rotor l 2 R loss A corrected rotor PR loss for each of the load points is calculated as in 53, Equation (4) or Equation (5), using the value of slip for each of the points corrected to the specified temperature, using Equation (9), and using the corrected value of the stator PR loss, from 6.5.3.2, for each load point. The slip used in Equation (4) or Equation (5), is the slip used in 6.5.2.5 corrected to the specified temperature from the test temperature at the applicable test point. 6.5.3.4 Corrected total loss A corrected total loss for each of the load points is determined as the sum of the friction and windage loss (see 6.5.2.2), the core loss (see 6.5.23), the corrected stray-load loss (see 6.5.3.1), the corrected stator PR loss (see 6.5.3.2), and the corrected rotor PR loss (see 6.5.3.3). 6.5.3.5 Corrected mechanical power The corrected mechanical (output) power for each of the load points for a motor is equal to the difference of the measured electrical (input) power and the corrected total loss. The corrected mechanical (input) power for a generator is equal to the sum of the measured electrical (output) power and the corrected total loss. 6.5.4 Efficiency Use the measured electrical power and the corrected mechanical power to calculate efficiency. See 6.1. 6.5.5 Power factor The power factor of the machine shall be determined for each load point using Equation (59) of 5.1 1 . 6.5.6 Summary of characteristics The summary of characteristics is a listing of the power factor, the efficiency, the speed, and the line current at precise load points. To obtain this information, plot the values from the analysis for the line current, speed, and efficiency vs, the output power. Fit curves to these data and pick off the values for the desired load points. The power factor is computed for each precise load point from its amperes, volts, and input watts as in Equation (59). This summary of machine characteristics is included in Form Bl . See 9.6. 6.6 Efficiency Test Method C-Duplicate machines This method of determining efficiency may be used when duplicate machines are available. The two machines are coupled together and electrically connected to two sources of power, the frequency of one being adjustable. Both power supplies must meet the requirements of 3.1 2 and 3.1 .3 and must be capable of power delivery and power absorption. The stray -load loss is determined by the indirect method. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 4 1 IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 6.6.1 Test procedure The individual tests that make up the Method C efficiency test shall be performed in the order listed. It is not necessary that these tests be performed in time succession with each immediately following the previous one. The tests may be performed individually if the operating temperatures of the machines are established close to their normal operating temperature for the type of test prior to obtaining the test data. For convenience in this analysis description, the machine connected to the constant rated frequency power supply during the load test is identified as machine Ml and the machine connected to the variable voltage, variable frequency supply is identified as machine M2. 6.6.1.1 Cold resistance With the machines at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances of both machines and the ambient temperature. See 5.4. 6.6.1.2 No-load tests of both machines Perform no-load tests on both machines. See 5.5. 6.6.1.3 Test under load Couple the two machines together and arrange for machine Ml to be supplied from the rated frequency power supply and for machine M2 to operate from the variable power supply. Machine Ml shall be loaded as a motor and as a generator at line currents corresponding to four load points approximately equally spaced between not less than 25% and up to and including 100% load, and two load points suitably chosen above 100% load but not exceeding 1 50% load. More load points may be used if desired. At each test point, obtain readings of electrical power, current, voltage, frequency, and stator winding temperature or stator winding resistance for both machines, along with speed and ambient temperature. The test should start at the highest load point with machine Ml operating as a motor. While maintaining rated voltage and frequency on machine Ml, decrease the frequency and voltage on machine M2 until the line current for machine Ml is approximately equal to that at the highest load point. When the voltage on machine M2 divided by the frequency of that voltage is equal to the rated voltage divided by rated fre- quency, this is a valid test point and the readings above should be obtained. Directly after obtaining the above readings, increase the frequency and voltage on machine M2 above rated frequency until the current on machine Ml, now operating as a generator, is the same as that recorded when machine Ml was operating as a motor. When the machine M2 voltage/frequency value is correct, this is a valid test point and the readings above should be obtained. The two sets of readings, with machine Ml operating as a motor and as a generator, complete the test data required for that load point. Then the test can proceed to the next test point and the data set with machine Ml acting as generator can be collected first. Continue in this manner takings readings for both directions of power flow until the sets of test data for all desired load points have been recorded. Perform this test as quickly as possible to minimize temperature changes in the machines during testing. When performing the first portion of the test at any load point, it is not necessary that the current be adjusted to precisely the predetermined current value; however, the current during the second portion of the test at that load point shall match that of the first as closely as the test equipment will permit. 42 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 112-2004 6.6.2 Calculations 6.6.2.1 Calculation form Calculate the machine performance using Form C in 9.8 as a guide. Form C2 in 9.9 is provided to assist in understanding each item in the test and in the calculations. Take care in the organization of the data. The analysis requires the use of information and data from both machines in the calculations for both portions of each load point. Form C is arranged to present all these data in the proper sequence. 6.6.2.2 Friction and windage See 5.5.4. 6.6.2.3 Core loss See 5.5.5. 6.6.2.4 Stator l 2 R loss See 5.2. The measured test temperature shall be used when adjusting the winding resistance for this loss determina- tion. The procedure for temperature refinement presented in 6.4.2.4 may be used if desired but only w r hen a full load temperature test has been performed on one of the machines. Two calculations for each machine are required for each load point, one during its motoring operation and the other during its generating operation. 6.6.2.5 Rotor l 2 R loss See 5.3. This calculation is based on the actual speed or slip measurement for each portion of each point and no adjustments are required. Two calculations for each machine are required for each load point. Take care that the proper power flow is observed. Using the description of a load point test in 6.6.1 3, machine Ml is a motor and Equation (68) should be used while machine M2 is a generator and Equation (69) applies. For the second half of each point, this switches with Equation (69) being applied to machine Ml calculations and Equation (68) to machine M2 calculations. The motor rotor l"R loss is: motor rotor / R loss = motor slip x (motor input - stator J R loss - core loss) (68) Where the last quantity, motor input - stator l^R loss - core loss, is the power across the air gap of the motor and the motor slip, in p.u., is the observed slip or calculated from measured speed and frequency. The generator rotor 1 R loss is: generator rotor / R loss = generator slip x (generator output + stator / R loss + core loss) (69) Where the last quantity, generator output + stator I"R loss + core loss, is the power across the air gap of the generator and the generator slip, in p.u., is the observed slip or is as calculated from measured speed and frequency. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 43 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 6.6.2.6 Stray-load loss 6.6.2.6.1 Machine M1 operating as a motor The combined stray -load loss is determined by subtracting from the total measured loss (the difference between input and output) the sum windage losses of the two machines. between input and output) the sum of the stator l 2 R losses, rotor l l R losses, core losses, and friction and The stray-load losses are assumed to be proportional to the square of the rotor current. The stray-load losses are as shown in Equation (70) and Equation (71). For machine Ml (as a motor): i,i . ,2 n i combined stray- load loss , nfXX motor stray- load loss = motor rotor / R loss x * (70) motor rotor I R + generator rotor FR loss For machine M2 (as a generator); generator load loss = (combined stray load loss) - (motor stray load loss) (71) 6.6.2.6.2 Machine M1 operating as a generator Repeat the calculations of 6.4.2.4 through 6.4.2.6 with the reversed power flow. Machine M2 is now the motor and its stray-load loss is determined using Equation (70). Machine Ml is now the generator and its stray-load loss is determined using Equation (71). 6.6.2.6.3 Averaging The preliminary value of the stray-load loss of machine Ml is the average of the two values determined for that machine in 6.6.2.6.1 and 6.6.2.6.2. The preliminary value of the stray-load loss of machine M2 is the average of the two values determined for that machine in 6.6.2.6.1 and 6.6.2.6.2. The average of these two preliminary values shall be considered the stray-load loss for use in the smoothing process described in 6.6.2.7. 6.6.2.7 Smoothing of the stray-load loss Smooth the stray -load loss data from 6.6.2.6.3 by using a linear regression analysis based on expressing the stray-load loss as a function of the square of the rotor current. The results of the analysis should be as shown in Equation (72). PsLa Vg = W lavg ?+B (72) where PsLavs is the average value of stray-load loss, in W, as plotted vs. approximate rotor current squared, A is the slope, B is the intercept with the zero current line, havg |S the average value of rotor current, in amperes. The value of rotor current, I2, for each direction of power flow (motoring and generating) is as shown in Equation (73). 44 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS std 1 12-2004 (73) where / is the observed value of stator line current, in amperes, (motoring or generating) for which stray-load loss is to be determined, /o is the value of no-load current, in amperes. If this analysis shows the slope as negative, or if the correlation factor is less than 0.9, delete the worst point and repeat the regression analysis. If this increases the correlation factor to 0.9 or larger, use the second regression; if not, or if the slope is still negative, the test is unsatisfactory. Errors in the instrumentation or test readings, or both, are indicated. The source of the error should be investigated and corrected, and the test under load, see 6.6.1 .3, should be repeated. 6.6.3 Corrections The correction on stray-load loss could be applied to either machine; however, the corrections of other losses are performed on machine Ml. The performance of machine M2 could be determined in a similar manner if desired. 6.6.3.1 Corrected stray-load loss The corrected value of stray-load loss is as shown in Equation (74). Psu = Mhf ™ where A is the slope of the of the P S i, vs. I 2 curve defined in 6.6.2.7, 1 2 is the rotor current, in amperes, for each load point as used in 6.6.2.7. 6.6.3.2 Temperature correction of stator l 2 R loss A corrected stator 1 2 R loss for each of the load points is calculated using the average stator resistance cor- rected to the specified temperature. If a full load temperature test was performed, use the total temperature, by resistance, at shutdown and correct the resistance taken at shutdown to the specified temperature using Equation (3). When no temperature test is performed, correct the cold resistance in 6.6.1 .1 to the specified temperature of 3.3.2 b) or 3.3.2 c), as applicable. Calculate the loss as in 5.2. 6.6.3.3 Temperature correction of rotor l 2 R loss A corrected rotor I 2 R loss for each of the load points is calculated as in 5.3, Equation (4), using the value of slip for each of the points corrected to the specified temperature, using Equation (9), and using the corrected value of the stator I 2 R loss, from 6.6.3.2, for each load point. The slip used in Equation (4) or Equation (5), is the slip used in 6.6.2.5 corrected to the specified temperature. 6.6.3.4 Corrected total loss A corrected total loss for each of the load points is determined as the sum of the friction and windage loss (see 6.6.2.2), the core loss (see 6.6.2.3), the corrected stray-load loss (see 6.6.3.1), the corrected stator 1"R loss (see 6.6.3,2). and the corrected rotor I 2 R loss (see 6.6.3.3). Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ail rights reserved. 4i> IEEE Std 11 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 6.6.3.5 Corrected mechanical power The corrected mechanical (output) power for each of the load points for a motor is equal to the difference of the measured electrical (input) power and the corrected total loss. The corrected mechanical (input) power for a generator is equal to the sum of the measured electrical (output) power and the corrected total loss. 6.6.4 Efficiency Use the measured electrical power and the corrected mechanical power to calculate efficiency. See 6A . 6.6.5 Power factor The power factor of the machine shall be determined for each load point using Equation (59), See 5.1 1 . 6.6.6 Summary of characteristics The summary of characteristics is a listing of the power factor, the efficiency, the speed and the line current at precise load points. To obtain this information, plot the values from the analysis for the line current, speed, and efficiency vs. the output power. Fit curves to these data and pick the values off for the desired load points. The power factor is computed for each precise load point from its amperes, volts, and input watts as in Equation (59). This summary of machine characteristics is included in Form C. See 9.8. 6.7 Efficiency Test Method E or E1 -Electrical power measurement with loss segregation This test method measures the input power and determines the output power by subtracting the total losses from the input. The total losses are equal to the sum of stator and rotor losses corrected to the specified tem- perature for resistance correction, core loss, friction and windage loss, and stray-load loss. 6.7.1 Test procedure 6.7.1.1 Cold resistance With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient temperature. 6.7.1.2 Test under load To obtain the required data, it is necessary to couple, belt, or gear the machine to a variable load and test per 5.6.2. 6.7.1.3 No-load test Perform a no-load test in accordance with 5.5. 6.7.1.4 Stray-load test The value of stray-load loss at full load for use with Efficiency Test Method E is determined by the direct method. Perform the test per 5.7.2 or 5.7.3. Efficiency Test Method El uses an assumed value from 5.7.4 and no test is required. 46 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 6.7.2 Calculations 6.7.2.1 Calculation form Calculate motor or generator performance using Form E in 9.10 as a guide. The source of each of the items on Form E or the method of its calculation is shown on Form E2 in 9.1 1 . 6.7.2.2 Windage and friction loss See 5.5.4. 6.7.2.3 Core loss See 5.5.5. 6.7.2.4 Stator t 2 R loss See 5.2. The stator I 2 R loss shall be corrected to the specified winding temperature. The stator winding resistance for each load point can be estimated by comparing the temperature rise measured by an embedded temperature detector, a temperature sensor located on the stator coil end, or the air outlet temperature rise, with corre- sponding temperature rise measurements obtained as steady -state values during a temperature test. When no temperature test is performed, the comparison is made with the total temperature assumed for the test. 6.7.2.5 Rotor l 2 R loss See 5.3. The slip value shall be corrected to the specified winding temperature before performing this calculation. 6.7.2.6 Stray-load loss With the full load stray-load loss established by the test in 6.7.1 .4, the loss level for each of the load points is determined by a ratio of the square of the rotor currents. See Equation (22). The rotor currents used at each of these points is calculated using Equation (23). 6.7.2.7 Total losses and output power The total losses of the machine are the sum of the windage and friction losses, the core loss, the stator I"R loss, the rotor I"R loss, and the stray-load loss. The output power at the shaft for a motor is equal to the electrical input to the stator minus the above total losses. For a generator, the output power is equal to the electrical input power during the load test and the input power at the shaft is equal to the test electrical power input power plus the above losses. 6.7.3 Motor/generator performance The efficiency for each test point is calculated using the input and output values of 6.7.2.7. The values of efficiency, line current, and speed may be plotted against load and values at specific load levels may be selected for the machine performance report. The power factor for each of these specific loads is calculated as in 5.11. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ail rights reserved. 47 IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 6.8 Efficiency Test Method F or F1 —Equivalent circuit When tests under load are not made, operating characteristics are calculated based upon the equivalent cir- cuit shown in Figure 2. The machine parameters in the equivalent circuit are derived from test data recorded during a no-load test and an impedance test. Accurate prediction of machine characteristics in the normal operating range will depend primarily upon the closeness by which /?2 represents the actual rotor resistance to currents of low frequency and, secondarily, upon the closeness by which X2 represents the actual rotor leakage reactance to currents of low frequency. Therefore, the most careful procedure during testing to determine the rotor characteristics at low frequency is imperative. 6.8.1 Test procedure 6.8.1.1 Cold resistance With the machine at ambient temperature, measure and record the winding(s) resistances and the ambient temperature. 6.8.1.2 No-load test Perform a no-load test in accordance with 5.5. Prior to making this test, the machine shall be operated at no- load until the input power has stabilized. See 5.5.1 . 6.8.1.3 Impedance test See 5.9.1. 6.8.1.4 Friction and windage loss See 5.5.4. 6.8.1.5 Core loss See 5.5.5. 6.8.1.6 Determine equivalent circuit Determine the value of all parameters of the equivalent circuit. See 5.9. 6.8.1.7 Stray-load loss 6.8.1.7.1 Test Method F See 5.7.2 or 5.73. 6.8.1.7.2 Test Method F1 See 5.7.4. 6.8.2 Calculation form The calculations start with the assumptions of slip values for each calculation point and proceed through steps shown in Form F2, 9.13. After completion of the first series of calculations, the results shall be reviewed and new slip values selected that may more clearly represent the desired load points. Repeat the calculations to complete the summary of characteristics. Iterative calculations can be used to determine the 48 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 112-2004 proper slip values. Forms F and F2 (see 9.12 and 9.13) are used for the performance calculations. The forms are arranged on the basis of Xi and Xo remaining constant throughout the range of operation of the machine. Should the curve of locked-rotor current vs. voltage depart from a straight line in the range of currents under consideration in the test per 5.9.1 , each column of calculations in 9.1 2 shall use values of reactance obtained from this curve for the value of /j calculated in the column. 6.8.3 Calculation of maximum torque Maximum or breakdown torque in a motor can be approximated from the calculation procedure in 9.13 using the slip value shown in Equation (75). s = R * (75) R] + {X X +X 2 f See Figure 2 for explanation of symbols. 6.9 Efficiency Test Method C/F, E/F, or E1/F1 —Equivalent circuit calibrated with one load point When a test point under load at a stator temperature of t t is available, the equivalent circuit derived in 6.8 can be calibrated by finding improved values for Ri and Xm- The following procedure is used after initial values for the equivalent circuits parameters in 9.14 have been determined: a) Use Forms F and F2 (see 9.12 and 9.13), but start with the second line with an assumed value of R2/S for the test load point and the value ofR\ based on stator winding temperature of t t . After reach- ing the calculation of stator power, check calculated value of input current and input power vs. mea- sured values of input current and input power. b) Adjust R2/S and Xm and iterate until the calculated value of input power and input current both agree with the measured value of input current and input power within 1%. Other circuit parameters should not be adjusted. (Input power is primarily a function of /?2/s.) c) Obtain R2 by multiplying the final assumed value of R2/S by the measured value of slip in per unit of synchronous speed. This procedure establishes the value of Ri (without temperature correction) to be used in calculating the load performance characteristics. d) Correct R\ and Rj to the specified temperature, t s , using Equation (3), and determine performance at desired load points following the format shown in 9.12. 6.9.1 Stray-load loss 6.9.1.1 Test Method C/F For Method C/F, the stray -load loss shall be determined as follows: a) For both the motoring and generating load points, determine the average value of stray-load loss, Psiawi following the procedure in 6.6.2.6. b) Determine the average value of rotor current for both the motoring and generating load points using Equation (73) for both calculations. The average of these two values is havg fo r use in Equation (76). c) The value of stray-load loss, P$l> for any load point is then calculated as shown in Equation (76). Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 49 IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR ?SL = PsiaJr 1 -) 2 ( 76 ) where PsLavg is the average value of stray-load loss from step a), 1 2 is the rotor current, in A, determined by solution of the equivalent circuit for the appropriate load point, ha\% i s tne average value of rotor current, in A, from step b). The value of stray -load loss, P 'si, reported in 9.13 should correspond to a value of havg equal to the average value of rotor current as determined from step b). 6.9.1.2 Test Method E/F See 5.7.2 or 5.7.3. 6.9.1.3 Test Method E1/F1 See 5.7.4. 6.9.2 Calculations form See 9.12 and 9.13. 7. Other performance tests 7.1 Rotor voltage On wound-rotor machines, the voltages shall be measured between all rotor terminals, with the rotor locked and its windings open -circuited and with rated voltage being applied to the stator. If any unbalance is detected, it is usual practice to take readings with several rotor positions to determine an average. 7.2 Locked-rotor tests 7.2.1 Current This test may be performed either to check for quality or to determine performance. When possible, readings shall be taken at rated voltage and frequency since the current is not directly proportional to the voltage because of changes in reactance caused by saturation of the leakage paths. When the test is made to check the quality of squirrel-cage machines, it is possible to omit the mechanical means of locking the rotor by applying single-phase power of rated voltage and frequency to any two of the machine line terminals of a three-phase machine. With a three-phase machine, the line current will be approximately 86% and the power input will be approximately 50% of the corresponding values obtained with polyphase power. The values so obtained may be compared with those measured on a duplicate unit that has been subjected to a complete test. 7.2.2 Torque The locked-rotor torque is taken as the minimum torque developed at rest in all angular positions of the rotor. The torque may be measured with a scale or force transducer with a rope and pulley, or with a brake 50 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 12-2004 or beam or it may be measured directly using an in-line torque transducer. Wound-rotor motors are always subject to variations in locked-rotor torque, depending on the angular position of the rotor with respect to the stator. For squirrel-cage motors, it is usual practice to lock the rotor in any convenient position. If the locked-rotor torque is not measured directly as mentioned above, the approximate locked-rotor torque may be calculated as shown in Equation (77). where T is torque, in N-m, P s i is the input power to stator, in W, Psir is the stator P-R loss, in W, at the test current (see 5 .2), Ph is the core loss, in W, at test voltage (see 5.5.5), n s is the synchronous speed, in r/min, C\ is a reduction factor to account for nonfund amenta! losses, hi is 9.549 for torque in N-m. NOTE— C, can be any value between 0.9 and 1 .0. Unless there is past experience to guide the tester, a value of .91 is suggested. 7.2.3 Power Readings of input power shall be taken simultaneously with those of voltage, current, and torque. 7.3 Tests for speed-torque and speed-current curves 7.3.1 Definitions 7.3.1.1 Speed-torque characteristic The speed-torque characteristic is the relationship between torque and speed, embracing the range from zero to synchronous speed for a motor and from synchronous speed to pull-out speed for an induction generator. This relation, when expressed as a curve, will include maximum (breakdown), pull up or pull out, and locked-rotor torques. For wound-rotor motors, the torque and current shall be measured between synchronous speed and the speed at which maximum torque occurs. The slip rings shall be short-circuited for this test. 7.3.1.2 Speed-current characteristic The speed-current characteristic is the relationship between current and speed. This curve is generally plot- ted on the same sheet as the speed- torque curve, using a common speed scale for both curves. 7.3.2 Speed-torque and speed-current curves procedure Any one of the methods listed in 7.3.2.1 through 73.2.4 may be used to obtain data for a speed-torque curve. The selection of the method will depend upon the size and the speed-torque characteristics of the machine and the testing facilities. In all four methods, sufficient test points should be recorded to ensure that reliable curves, including irregularities, can be drawn in the regions of interest from the test data. It is important that the frequency of the power supply be maintained constant throughout the test. For wound-rotor motors, the slip rings shall be short-circuited for this test. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR Method 1 and Method 4 require the maintenance of constant speed for each reading. Therefore, they cannot be used in regions where the torque of the machine increases with speed more rapidly than that of the load- ing device. From the results of the following tests, adjusted to the rated voltage, curves of torque and current should be plotted vs. speed. 7.3.2.1 Method 1 — Measured output A dc generator that has had its losses previously determined is coupled or belted to the motor being tested. An ac power supply of rated frequency is connected to the motor terminals. The voltage should be as high as can be impressed upon the motor terminals without excessive heating, at least 50% of rated voltage, if possi- ble. The speed of the motor for each test point is controlled by varying the load on the generator. In this test, readings are taken at speeds between approximately 1/3 synchronous speed and the maximum speed obtainable. The speed should be constant when the readings are taken, so that acceleration or deceler- ation power does not affect the results. At each speed setting, readings of voltage, current, and speed are taken for the induction motor, and readings of armature voltage and current and field current are taken for the dc generator. Care should be taken not to overheat the motor. The accuracy of speed measurement is particularly important at low slip. All points should be read as soon as the meters have settled, without waiting for the slow creep in the indications to disappear. The total power output of the motor is the sum of the power output and losses of the dc generator. The torque, 7\ at each speed is calculated as shown in Equation (78). n where T is torque, in N-m, Pqo is the generator output, in W, Pql is the losses of the generator (including friction and windage), in W, n is the test speed of motor, in r/min, hi is 9.549 for torque in N*m. At the speed for the test point, the values of torque and current are corrected to the specified voltage, V, as described in 73.3. 7.3.2.2 Method 2— Acceleration In the acceleration method, the motor is started with no load, and the value of acceleration Is determined at various speeds. The torque at each speed is determined from the acceleration of the mass of the rotating parts. Accurate measurements of speed and acceleration are an essential requirement of this method. The acceleration to be used and the duration of the test are determined by the type of instruments that are used to make the measurements. In any case, the accelerating time should be long enough so that electrical transient effects in the instruments and in the motor do not distort the speed- torque curve. The accelerating time must also be long enough to permit recording the necessary number of mechanical and electrical mea- surements with sufficient accuracy for plotting the required curves (see 73.2). To provide sufficient time for recording the data at each point, the accelerating time may be increased by using a lower applied voltage or by coupling a suitable inertia to the motor shaft. 52 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 112-2004 As the motor accelerates from rest to near synchronous speed, simultaneous readings are taken of line-to- line voltage for one phase, line current in one phase, speed, and time in seconds. A minimum of five sets of readings should be taken during the accelerating period; however, more readings should be taken if possible. If the motor's starting friction is high, or if more accurate data in the zero speed range are desired, the motor can be started rotating in the reverse direction prior to application of power for the acceleration on which measurements are to be taken. If Method 3 (see 7.3.2.3) is to be used as a check, line power should be taken with a polyphase wattmeter or two single-phase wattmeters at each speed point where data are recorded. It may sometimes be necessary to take more than one run at different voltages in order to get satisfactory readings throughout the curve, especially when there are appreciable cusps in the speed -torque characteristics. The torque, 7\ at each speed is calculated from the acceleration using Equation (79). rr J dn k 2 dt where T is torque, in N*m, ./ is the moment of inertia of rotating parts, in kg * m 2 , (79) is the acceleration at each speed, in revolutions per minute per second, dn It ki is 9.549 for torque in N-m At the speed for the test point, the values of torque and current are corrected to the specified voltage, V, as described in 7.3.3. 7.3.2.3 Method 3-lnput In this method, the torque is determined by subtracting the losses in the machine from the input power. It is a valuable check on the other methods, and is particularly useful when the machine cannot be unloaded to determine torque by acceleration. In practice, the method is approximate because the stator losses cannot be readily determined for the actual operating conditions and, therefore, must be approximated. This method is also subject to error in the case of special machines that may have substantial positive or negative harmonic torques that are not readily evaluated. The machine is started as described in 7.3.2.2, except that it does not have to be unloaded. The input read- ings called for in 7.3.2.2 are plotted against the speed readings. The line voltage, line current, power, and speed should be plotted vs. time. Average values of the zero speed readings from the locked test, as described in 7.2.2, adjusted to the voltage at which the other readings were taken, should be included. The torque, 7, at each speed is determined from the input power using Equation (80). T fv (80) r "*2~ -'V r.{ X Psi ~ Psir ~ -p„- -P S L, -P S Lr>< i in V fl s where T is to rqu e, in N*m, Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 53 IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR P s i is the input power to stator, in W , Psir is the stator/ 2 /? loss, in W, at the test current (see 5.2), Pit is the core loss, in W, at the test voltage (see 5.5.5), P$Ls *$ the fundamental frequency stray-load loss, in W, at the test current (see 5.7.2.1), Psu is the higher frequencies stray-load loss, in W, at the test current (see 5.7.2.2), n is test speed, in r/min, n s is the synchronous speed, in r/min, k-2 is 9.549 tor torque in N*m, Tf w is the motor friction and windage torque at test speed, in N-m. NOTE— If the Psu component of stray load loss is not available, it may be assumed that the stray load loss is equal to Psu- If the stray load loss {Psu + PsLr ) na s been determined from a dynamometer test, the total value of stray-load loss may be used as the value of Psu; or, the value of Psu ma y he determined by the method outlined in 5.7.2.1 , and Psu may be determined as the value of stray load loss minus the value of Psu • At the speed for the test point, the values of torque and current are corrected to the specified voltage, V, as described in 7.3.3. 7.3.2.4 Method 4— Direct measurement The torque and current are measured as the machine is loaded at various speeds with a dynamometer or mechanical brake. At each speed, simultaneous readings of voltage, current, speed, and torque are taken. The test should be taken as near rated voltage as practical. If a reduced voltage is used, the values of torque and current should be corrected to the specified voltage as described in 7.3.3. 7.3.3 Correction of data for tests performed at reduced voltage When it is necessary to establish values of current and torque at rated voltage, based on speed-torque, speed- current, and locked-rotor tests made at reduced voltage, it should be recognized that, because of saturation of the leakage flux paths, the current may increase by a ratio somewhat greater than the first power of the voltage; and the torque may increase by a ratio somewhat greater than the square of the voltage. The rela- tionship varies with design; however, as a first approximation, the current is calculated as varying directly with voltage, and torque with the square of voltage. A more exact method of test requires determining the rate of change of current and torque with voltage by establishing speed- torque and speed-current curves for at least two, and preferably for three or more, values of voltage. The reduced- voltage test points should be plotted on log- log paper and corrected to rated voltage using a least square curve fit for maximum accuracy. On speed- torque and speed-current curves, enough points at various speeds must be corrected to provide true representation of the curve over the entire speed range. 8. Miscellaneous tests 8.1 Insulation resistance For maintenance purposes, insulation resistance tests are of value. All accessories, such as surge capacitors, surge arresters, current transformers, etc., that have leads located at the machine terminals shall be discon- nected during this test, with the leads connected together and to the frame or core. For test methods, see IEEE Std 43-2000. 54 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 8.2 High-potential test 8.2.1 General High-potential tests are tests that consist of the application of a voltage higher than the rated voltage for a specified time for the purpose of determining the adequacy against breakdown of insulating materials and spacings under normal conditions. The test voltage should be applied when, and only when, the machine is in good condition and the insulation resistance is not impaired due to dirt, moisture, or abrasion or other types of damage. See IEEE Std 43-2000. 8.2.2 Measurement For measurement of high-potential test voltage, see IEEE Std 4-1995 [B6]. The voltmeter method of mea- surement is commonly used. 8.2.3 Connections The high-potential test voltage shall be successively applied between each electric circuit and the frame, with the windings not under test and the other metal parts connected to the frame. Interconnected polyphase windings are considered as one circuit. All accessories such as surge arresters, current transformers, etc., that have leads located at the machine terminals shall be disconnected during this test, with the leads connected together and to the frame or core. No leads shall be left unconnected during the test as this may cause an extremely severe stress at some point of the winding. 8.2.4 Test voltage The commonly specified high-potential test voltage for factory testing of new stators is 1000 volts plus 2 times the rated voltage of the machine. Likewise for new rotors of wound rotor machines the test voltage is 1000 volts plus 2 times the maximum voltage induced between collector rings. Refer to NEMA MG 1- 2003 [B7] Part 12 and Part 20 to confirm the voltage level for the specific machine under test. Since high-potential testing is stressful on winding dielectric components, it is recommended that initial field high-potential test voltages be limited to 85% of the levels used for factory testing of new equipment. For any further high potential testing, it is recommended the test voltage level be limited to a 75% level. 8.2.5 Voltage application In performing the test, the voltage shall be increased to full value as rapidly as possible while still maintain- ing an accurate meter reading, and the full voltage should be maintained for 1 min. It should then be reduced at a rate that will bring it to 1/4 value or less in not more than 1 5 seconds. To avoid excessive stressing of the insulation components, repeated application of the high-potential test voltage is not recommended. WARNING Due to the high voltage used, high-potential tests should be conducted only by experienced personnel, and ade- quate safety precautions should be taken to avoid injury to personnel and damage to property. For the procedures recommended , refer to IEEE Std 4- 1 995 [B6] . Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 55 IEEE Std 1 12-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 8.3 Shaft current and voltage Shaft currents can flow in rotating machinery as a consequence of electromagnetically developed voltages in the shaft or frame. In electrical machines, any unbalance in the magnetic circuits, or in the electrical phase currents that encircle a shaft, can create flux linkages with the rotating system. When the shaft rotates, these linkages can produce an electric potential difference between shaft ends. This voltage is capable of driving a circulating current in a shaft- to- frame loop by using two bearings to complete the circuit. If the opposite drive end bearing (or both bearings) is/are isolated from the frame, the conducting path is impeded by the insulation, and the circulating shaft current in that machine is inhibited. If only the drive end bearing is insulated, however, the current may be able to circulate by using the opposite end bearing in con- junction with an uninsulated bearing in the interconnected equipment to complete the circuit. 8.3.1 Test to measure shaft potential for circulating shaft currents In machines that have insulation on all bearings (or all but one bearing), a test can be conducted to detect the presence of shaft potential while the unit is operating. This test can also be applied to machines that have insulating properties in all bearing oil films. The test is completed by measuring the shaft potential to the frame at each of the other bearings. A high impedance oscilloscope should be utilized and connected with one lead grounded to the frame and the other lead attached to a shaft brush. This brush is then applied to a shaft section near each bearing and the peak voltages are measured. First, a shaft brush is used to short out the uninsulated bearing (or one bearing, if all are insulated). This fixed brush is applied to the shaft near the bearing and connected to the frame with a short piece of low-resistance conductor. It is preferable to use a low-impedance shielded conductor for the oscilloscope leads to minimize electro- magnetic interference. This shield should be grounded at one end only. If an oscilloscope is not available for the test, a high-impedance voltmeter can be used. Both ac and dc volt- ages should be measured at each bearing. The peak voltage can be roughly approximated by adding the dc level and 1.4 times the ac rms level. This estimated peak voltage, however, may be considerably below the actual peak value. An alternate method involves measuring the ac voltage with brushes contacting opposite ends of the shaft while the machine is operating at rated voltage and speed. 8.3.2 Test to measure possible level of shaft current This test can be conducted on machines as described in 8.3,1 . The procedure is identical to that of 8.3,1 , with the exception that a low-resistance ammeter is used in place of the oscilloscope. NOTE— In this test arrangement, the ammeter is being used as a low-impedance, uncalibrated voltmeter. The meter readings may not be a true indication of the current that might How should there be a breakdown of the lubrication film in the bearing(s). This method may be useful if a history of results from similar tests is available. 8.3.3 Other methods If special means for measurement of shaft currents, such as Rogowski loops, are a feature of the machine under test, these may be used in lieu of or to supplement the above test methods. 56 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 8.4 Bearing insulation resistance 8.4.1 Method 1 The most reliable check on bearing insulation is performed with the unit at rest. If only one bearing is insu- lated, a layer of insulating paper should be applied under the uninsulated bearing journal to insulate the shaft from the bearing. Couplings to adjacent units should be disengaged if they are not insulated. A low-voltage ohmmeter should be used to make a preliminary check at each insulated bearing. With one ohmmeter lead applied to the shaft and the other to the frame (across the insulation), the bearing insulation resistance can be measured. On machines with two layers of bearing insulation and with a metallic separator between layers, this test should be performed between the metallic separator and the machine frame. The test can be conducted while the machine is running, but it is preferable to conduct the test with the machine at rest. The test should be supplemented with a careful visual inspection to ensure that there are no possible parallel paths that are uninsulated. 8.4.2 Method 2 A layer of heavy paper is placed around the shaft to insulate the journals of the uninsulated bearings. The coupling of the driving or driven units should be disengaged, if it is not insulated. Then, from a 1 10-1 25 V source with either a filament lamp suitable for the circuit voltage or a voltmeter of approximately 150 V full scale with a resistance in the range of 100-300 Q/V placed in series with the voltage source, two leads should be run, one to the insulated bearing and the other to the frame (across the insulation). If the lamp fil- ament does not show color (or if the reading of the, voltmeter does not exceed 60 V), the insulation may be considered satisfactory. A 500 V megohmmeter may also be used. This is much more sensitive than the above method and may tend to reject insulation, which, in reality, is adequate to prevent the small shaft voltage from causing injurious current. See 8.4.1. 8.5 Noise For noise (sound level) tests refer to NEMA MG 1-2003 [B7] Part 9 and IEC 60034-9 [B3J. 8.6 Balance and vibration 8.6.1 Rotor balance Motor and generator rotors should be dynamically balanced with a half key in place. 8.6.2 Vibration For vibration tests, refer to NEMA MG 1-2003 [B7] Part 7, IEC 60034-14 [B4] or API Std 541 , 4th Edition [B2]. 8.7 Overspeed When overspeed tests are performed, precautions shall be taken to protect personnel and equipment. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 51 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 9. Forms 9.1 Test forms and support information This test procedure does not require that the test forms presented must be used, however, the forms and supporting information do show the sequence of tests that must be used and do guide the calculations with equations using the line item numbers from the forms. It is expected that the test analyses will be accom- plished using computer programs and in many cases with data being obtained by electronic means and going directly into the analysis program. 9.1.1 Summary of characteristics A table or listing of the summary of characteristics is a part of each test form. With most of the test methods, the values at specific load values are obtained from plots of the calculated values of the test points. From a curve defined by these points, the values for the points of interest may be obtained. Load values of 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 percent of rated load are commonly used. Any other load of interest can also be shown. The power factor here is calculated for each precise load point using the voltage, current, and power obtained from the plotted data. The data plots mentioned may be a manual or a computer generated plot or the required data values at the specific load points may be calculated from a computerized virtual curve if such programs are available. Data summaries for Method F testing may be calculated for the precise desired points; a plot of the data is not necessary. 58 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 9.2 Form A-Method A Type Frequency,. _ Design _ . Frame _ _Rating . _ Volts . Degrees C Temperature Rise _ _ Synchronous r/min . Time Rating Phase „ _Serial No. /Model No. _ Specified temperature. f v , in °C Synchronous speed.n. in r/min Stator Resistance. Terminal-to-Terminal Ohms @ °C Test Point (Motoring) (Generating) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stator Winding Temperature, tt, in "C Ambient Temperature, in °C Line-to-Line Voltage, in V Frequency, in Hz Observed Speed, in r/min Observed Slip, in r/min Observed Slip, in p.u. Corrected Slip, in p.u. Corrected Speed, in r/min Torque, in N-m Dynamometer Correction, in N-m Corrected Torque, in N-m Shaft Power, in W Line Current, in A Stator Power, in W (a) Stator l 2 R Loss, in W, at /, (b) Stator f 2 R Loss, in W, at is Stator Power Correction = (b) - (a) Corrected Stator Power, in W Efficiency, in % Power Factor, in % Performance Curve Summary of Characteristics Load, in % of rated 25 50 75 100 125 150 Power Factor, in % Efficiency, in % Speed, in r/min Line Current, in A Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 59 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 9.3 Form A2-Method A calculations 'type Frequency _ Design -.Volts . Degrees C Temperature Rise _ . Frame _ .Synchronous r/min _ Time Rating . JRating , Phase „ „Serial No. Model No. „ Specified temperature, / iV , (1 ) , in °C. See 3.3.2. Synchronous speed. n s , (2) , in r/min Stator Resistance. Terminal -to-Terminal (3) Ohms @ (4) °C See6.3.1 .1 Item Test Point (Motoring)(Generating) Source or Calculation 1 2 -- 6 5 Stator Winding Temp, tt in °C From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3 6 Ambient Temperature, in °C From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3 7 Line-to-Line Voltage, in V From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3 8 Frequency, in Hz From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3 9 Observed Speed, in r/min #(9) = (2) -(10) 10 Observed Slip, in r/min #(10) = (2) -(9) n Observed Slip, in p.u. (11) = (10)/ (2) 12 Corrected Slip, in p.u. See 5.3.2 13 Corrected Speed, in r/min (13) = (2)x[l-(12)] 14 Torque, in N-rn From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3 15 Dynamometer Correction, in N-m From calculation per 5.6.1.2 16 Corrected Torque, in N-m For motoring: (16) = (14) + (15) For generating: (16) = (14) - (15) 17 Shaft Power, in W (17) = (16) x (13)/ 9.549 18 Line Current, in A From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3 19 Stator Power, in W From each test point. From 6.3.1 .3 20 Stator l 2 R Loss, in W, at tt *(20) = 1 .5 x (18) 2 x (3) x (LA, + (5)]/L*] + (4) J} 21 Winding Resistance at t s Correct (3) using Equation (3) 22 Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at r s (22)= 1.5x(l8) 2 x(21) 23 Stator Power Correction (23) = (22) -(20) 24 Corrected Stator Power, in W For motoring: (24) = (19) + (23) For generating: (24) = (19) - (23) 25 Efficiency, in % For motoring: (25) = 100 (1 7)/(24) For generating: (25) = 100 (24)/(17) 26 Power Factor, in % (26) = 100 x (24) / [1 .732 x (7) x (18) J # Enter the measured speed or measured slip for each test point on the proper line and use formulas provided to calculate the other parameter. * In (20) select/:] based on the stator conductor material. See 5.2.1. Parentheses, (), normally used with equation numbers are not used here to avoid confusion with the form item numbers. 60 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 9.4 Form B-Method B Type Frequency. _Desisn_ Volts Degrees C Temperature Rise . . Frame _ .Synchronous r/min __ Time Rating _ „Rating Phase.. _Serial No. „ Model No. _ Cold St a tor Winding Resistance Between Terminals Ohms @ °C Rated Load Temp. Test Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals Ohms @ °C in °C Ambient Rated Load Temperature Test Stator Temperature Rise °C Total Stator Temperature. /, °C in a 25 °C Ambient Description (Motoring)(Generating) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ambient Temperature, in °C Stator Winding Temperature. t v in °C Frequency, in Hz Synchronous Speed, in r/min Speed, in r/min Slip Speed, in r/min Slip in p.u. Line-to-Line Voltage, in V Line Current, in A Stator Power, in W Core Loss, in W Stator/ 2 /? Loss, in W, at/, Power Across Air Gap, in W Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W Friction and Windage Loss, in W Total Conventional Loss, in W Torque, in N-m Dynamometer Correction, in N-m Corrected Torque, in N-m Shaft Power, in W Apparent Total Loss, in W Stray -Load Loss, in W Intercept Slope Correlation Fa ctor J oint Deleted Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at t x Corrected Power Across Air Gap, in W Corrected Slip, in p.u. Corrected Speed, in r/min Rotor f 2 R Loss, in W, at h Connected Stray-Load Loss, in W Corrected Total Loss, in W Corrected Shaft Power, in W Efficiency, in % Power Factor, in % The Summary of Characteristics shall be presented as with Form A in 9.2. For additional guidance, see 9.1.1 . Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 61 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 9.5 Form B2-Method B calculations Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (! ) Ohms @ __ __(2) °C From 6.4. U Hoi Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (3) Ohms @ _(4) °C in (5) D C Ambient From 6.4.1.2 Raied Load Temp. Test Stator Temperature Rise (6) °C, (6) = (4) - (5) (4)={[(3)/(1)]xl* ] +(2)1}~* ] Total Stator Temperature, t s , (7) °C in a 25 °C Ambient, (7) = (6) + 25 If (6) & (7) are from duplicate, (3), (4) & (5) are N/A Item Description (Motoring)(Gene rating) Source or Calculation 8 Ambient Temperature, in °C From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3 9 Stator Winding Temperature, t h in °C From each point, adjusted per 6.4.2,4 JO Frequency, in Hz From each test point, from 6.4.1.3 n Synchronous Speed, in r/min =1 20 x (10) / number of poles 12 Speed . in r/min *=(n)-03) 13 Slip Speed, in r/min *=(11)-(12) 14 Slip in p.u. = (13)/ (11) 15 Line- to- Line Voltage, in V From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3 16 Line Current, in A From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3 17 Stator Power, in W From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3 18 Core Loss, in W From 5.5.5 at voltage equal to (15) 19 Stator f 2 R Loss, in W, = 1 .5 x (16) 2 x R , Adjust R see 6.4.2.4 20 Power Across Air Gap, in W = (17)-(18)-(19) for motor = (17) + (18) + (19) for generator 21 Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W = (20)x(14) 22 Friction and Windage Loss, in W From 5.5.4 23 Total Conventional Loss, in W = (18) + (19) + (21) + (22) 24 Torque, in N-m From each test point, from 6.4.1 .3 25 Dynamometer Correction, in N-m From test per 5.6.1 .2, if needed 26 Corrected Torque, in N-m = (24) + (25) 27 Shaft Power, in W = (26) x (12)/ 9.549 28 Apparent Total Loss, in W = (.17) -(27) for a motor = (27) - (17) for a generator 29 Stray-Load Loss, in W = (28) »(23) Intercept (30) Slope (31) Correl 3tion Factor (321 . Point Deleted (33) (30), (31 ), (32) & (33) from the linear regression ana lysis of (29) & (26) entries as described in 6.4.2.8 34 Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at t s = 1.5x(l6) 2 x(3)x{LA ]+ (7)J/LAj + (4)J} 35 Corrected Power Across Air Gap, in W = (17) -(18) -(34) 36 Corrected Slip, in p.u. = (14) x LA' , + (7)]/^ +(9)j 37 Corrected Speed, in r/min = (1.1) x [1.00 -(36)] 38 Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W, at t s = (36) x (35) 39 Corrected Stray-Load Loss, in W = (31)x(26) 2 40 Corrected Total Loss, in W = (18) + (22) + (34) +(38) + (39) 41 Conected Shaft Power, in W = (1.7) -(40) 42 Efficiency, in % = 100(40/(17) for a motor = 100(17)/(41) for a generator 43 Power Factor, in % = 100 x (17)/ [1.732 x (15) x (16)] * Enter the measured speed or measured slip speed for each test point on the proper line and use the formula provided to calculate the other parameter. In (4), (19), (34), and (36), select k] based on conductor material. See 5.2.1 and 5.3.2. See 9.1.1 for Summary of Characteristics. 62 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AN rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 9.6 Form B1~Method B1 Type Frequency. _Design_ _ Volts . Degrees C Temperature Rise _ _ Frame _ _ Synchronous r/min _ Time Rating, _Ralirm . .Phase. .Serial No. . _Model No.. Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals Ohms @ C C S pec i fi ed S t ator Te m pe ra tu re . / „ ° C i n a 25 ° C A mbi en t Description (Motoring)(Generating) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ambient Temperature, in °C Stator Winding Temp, (Y r ), in °C Frequency, in Hz Synchronous Speed, in r/min Speed, in r/min Slip Speed, in r/min Slip in p.u. Line-to-Line Voltage, in V Line Current, in A Stator Power, in W Core Loss , in W Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at/; Power Across Air Gap, in W Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W Fri c ti on a nd Wi n da ge Lo s s , i n W Total Conventional Loss, in W Torque, in N-m Dynamometer Correction, in N-m Co rrec ted To rq u e , i n N - m Shaft Power, in W Apparent Total Loss, in W Stray-Load Loss, in W Intercept Slope Correlation Factor Point Dek •led Stator/ 2 /? Loss, in W, at t s Conected Power Across Air Gap, in W Corrected Slip, in p.u. Corrected Speed, in r/min Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W> at t s Corrected Stray- Load Loss, in W Corrected Total Loss, in W Corrected Shaft Power, in W Efficiency, in % Power Factor, in % The Summary of Characteristics shall be presented as with Form A in 9.2. For additional guidance, see 9.1 .1 . Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 63 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 9.7 Form B1-2-Method B1 calculations Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (1) Ohms @ (2) °C From 6.5.1.1 Specified Stator Temperature, (t s ), (3) °C in a 25 °C Ambient, From 3.3.2 c) Item Description (Motoring)(Generating) Source or Calculation 4 Ambient Temperature, in "C From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4 5 Stator Winding Temp, t t , in °C From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4 6 Frequency, in Hz From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4 7 Synchronous Speed, in r/min = 120 x (6) / number of poles 8 Speed, in r/min *= (7) ™ (9) 9 Slip Speed, in r/min *= (7) - (8) 10 Slip in p.u. = (9)/ (7) 11 Line-to-Line Voltage, in V From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4 12 Line Current, in A From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4 13 Stator Power, in W From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4 14 Core Loss, in W From 5.3.5 at voltage equal to (1 1) 15 Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at t t = J.5x(12) 2 x(])x{|A J +(5)l/|A ] + (2)]} \6 Power Across Air Gap, in W -(13)-(14)-(15)foramolor = (13) + (14) + (15) for a generator 17 Rotor./ 2 /? Loss, in W = (16)x(10) 38 Friction and Windage Loss, in W From 5.5.4 19 Total Conventional Loss, in W = (14) + (15) + (17) + (18) 20 Torque, in N-m From each test point, from 6.5.1 .4 21 Dynamometer Correction, in N-m From test per 5.6.1 .2, if needed 22 Corrected Torque, in N-m = (20) + (21) 23 Shaft Power, in W = (22) x (8)/ 9.549 24 Apparent Total Loss, in W = (13) -(23) for a motor = (23) - (1 3) for a generator 25 Stray-Load Loss, in W -(24) -(19) Intercept (26) Slope (27) Correlation Factor (28) Point Deleted (29) (26), (27), (28) & (29) from the linear regression analysis of (25) & (22) entries as described in 6.4.2.7 30 Stator J 2 R Loss, in W, at t s = 1.5x(16) 2 x0)x{L*i+(3)]/[*]+(2)J} 31 Corrected Power Across Air Gap. in W = (13) -(14) -(30) 32 Corrected Slip, in p.u. = (10)x[* J +(3)]/[A 1 + (5)] 33 Corrected Speed, in r/min = (7) x [1.00 -(32)] 34 Rotor l 2 R Loss, in W, at t s = (31)x(32) 35 Corrected Stray-Load Loss, in W = (27) x (22) 2 36 Corrected Total Loss, in W = (14) + (18) + (30) +(34) + (35) 37 Corrected Shaft Power, in W = (13) -(36) 38 Efficiency, in % =.100(37)/(13)faramotor = 100(13)/(37) for a generator 39 Power Factor, in % = 100 x (13)/ [1.732 x (11) x (12).] * Enter the measured speed or measured slip speed for each test point on the proper line and use the formula provided to calculate the other parameter. In (15), (30), and (32), select k] based on conductor material. See 5.2.1 and 5.3.2. See 9.1.1 for Summary of Characteristics. 64 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 9.8 Form C-Method C Type Frequency„ JDesign _ .Volts . Degrees C Temperature Rise . _ Frame _ _ Speed r/min_ . Time Rating, Jip/kW . Phase _ _Serial No. _ Model No._ Ml Vra^ <^ld ^\-A<* Windina Resistance. Ret ween Terminals Ohms @ °C M2 Average r old Stator Winding Resistance Retween Terminals Ohms @ °C Total Specified Stator Temperature, t, °C in a 25 °C Ambient Test Point > 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Ml M2 M 1 M2 M 1 M2 M 1 M2 M 1 M2 M 1 M2 Part A of Test Point - Machine 1 as a motor and Machine 2 as a generator Ambient Temperature, in °C Stator Winding Temp, f,, in °C Frequency, in Hz Synchronous Speed, in r/min Speed, in r/min Slip Speed, in r/min Slip, in p.u. Line-to-Line Voltage, in V Volts / Hertz Line Current, in A Stator Power, in W Core Loss, in W Stator 1 2 R Loss, in W, at i t Power Across the Air Gap, in W Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W Friction and Windage Loss, in W Total Conventional Loss, in W Rotor Current, in A Combined Stray-Load Loss, in W Stray -Load Loss, in W 1 Part B of Test Point- Machine 1 as a generator and Machine 2 as a motor Ambient Temperature, in °C Stator Winding Temp, t T , in °C Frequency, in Hz Synchronous Speed, in r/min Speed, in r/min Slip Speed, in r/min Slip, in p.u. Line-to-Line Voltage, in V Volts / Hertz Line Current, in A Stator Power, in W Core Loss, in W Stator l 2 R Loss, in W, at /, Form C, Part 1 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Alf rights reserved. 65 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR Test Point > 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description M 1 M2 Ml M2 Ml M2 Ml M2 M i M2 M 1 M2 Power Across the Air Gap, in W Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W Friction and Windage Loss, in W Total Conventional Loss, in W Rotor Current, in A Combined Stray-Load Loss, in W Stray-Load Loss, in W Machine 1 Machine 2 ] 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Average Rotor Current, in A Average Stray-Load Loss, in W Linear Regression Analysis Machine I. - intercept Slope Correlation Factor Machine 2 - Intercept Slope Con-elation Factoi Corrected Values Stator7 2 tf Loss,in W, at ^ Power Across Air Gap, in W Slip, in p.u. Speed, in r/min Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W, at /\, Stray -Load Loss, in W Total Loss, in W Shaft Power, in W Efficiency, in % Summary of Characteristics Machine 1 Load, in % of rated 25 50 75 100 125 150 Power Factor, in % Efficiency, in % Speed, in r/min Line Current, in A Summary of Characteristics Machine 2 Load, in % of rated 25 50 75 100 125 150 Power Factor, in % Efficiency, in % Speed, in r/min Line Current, in A Form C, Part 2 66 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 9.9 Form C2~Method C Calculations Type . Frequency. .Design „ _ Frame _ Volts . _Speed r/m.in_ „hp/kW . „Phase„ Degrees C Temperature Rise . Time Ratine _ „Serial No. . Model No.. Ml Average Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals ____(1) Ohms @ (2) °C M2 Average Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (3) Ohms @ _(4) D C Total Specified Stator Temperature, t s (5) °C in a 25 °C Ambient I Item Test Point> l,Etc. Ml M2 Description Machine 1 Machine 2 Part A of Test Point - Machine 1 as a motor and Machine 2 as a generator 6 26 Ambient Temperature, in "C From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 7 27 Stator Winding Temp, t t , in °C From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 8 28 Frequency, in Hz From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 9 29 Synchronous Speed, in r/min (9)= 1 20 x (8) /No. of poles (29)= 120 x (28) /No. of poles 10 30 Speed, in r/min From each test point, from 6.6.1.3 From each lest point, from 6.6.1 .3 11 31 Slip Speed, in r/min From 6.6.1.3 or =(9) -(10) From 6.6.1.3 or =(30) -(29) 12 32 Slip, in p.u. (12) = (ll)/(9) (32) = (31)/ (29) 13 33 Line-to-Line Voltage, in V From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 14 34 Volts / Hertz (14) = (13)/ (8) (34) = (33)/ (28) 15 35 Line Current, in A From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 16 36 Stator Power, in W From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 17 37 Core Loss, in W From 6.6.2.3 for machine 1 From 6.6.2.3 for machine 2 18 38 Stator/ 2 /? Loss, in W, at/, From 6.6.2.4 for machine 1 From 6.6.2.4 for machine 2 19 39 Power Across the Air Gap, in W (19) = (16) -(17) -(18) (39) = (36) + (37) + (38) 20 40 Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W (20) = (19) x (12) (40) - (39) x (32) 21 41 Friction and Windage Loss, in VV From 6.6.2.2 for machine 1 From 6.6.2.2 for machine 2 22 42 Total Conventional Loss, in W (22) = (17) + (18) + (20) + (21) (42) = (37) + (38) + (40) + (41) 23 43 Rotor Current, in A For each test point using Eq. 71 For each test point using Eq. 71 24 Combined Stray-Load Loss, in W (24) = (16) - (36)- (22) - (42) 25 44 Strav-Load Loss, in W (25) = (20) x (24) / [(20) + (40)] (44) = (24) -(25) Part B of Test Point - Machine 1 as a generator and Machine 2 as a motor 45 63 Ambient Temperature, in °C From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 46 64 Stator Winding Temp, t t , in °C From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 47 65 Frequency, in Hz From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 48 66 Synchronous Speed, in r/min (48) = 1 20 x (47) / No. of poles (66) = 120 x (65) / No. of poles 49 67 Speed, in r/min From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 50 68 Slip Speed, in r/min From 6.6.1.3 or =(49) -(48) From 6.6.1.3 or = (66) ~ (67) 51 69 Slip, in p.u. (51) = (50)/ 48) (69) = (68) / (66) 52 70 Line-to-Line Voltage, in V From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 53 71 Volts / Hertz (53) = (52) / (47) (71) = (70)/ (65) 54 72 Line Current, in A From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 55 73 Stator Power, in W From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 From each test point, from 6.6.1 .3 56 74 Stator/ 2 /? Loss, in W, at t t From 6.6.2.4 for machine 1 From 6.6.2.4 for machine 2 57 75 Power Across the Air Gap, in W (57) = (55) + (17) + (56) (75) = (73) - (37) - (74) Form C2, Parti Copyright © 2004 IEEE. AH rights reserved. 61 Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR Ml M2 Description Machine 1 Machine 2 57 75 Power Across the Air Gap. in W (57) = (55)+ (17) + (56) (75) = (73) - (37) - (74) 58 76 Rotor 1 2 R Loss, in \V (58) = (57) x (51) (76) = (75) x (68) 59 77 Total Conventional Loss, in W (59) = (17) + (21)+ (56) + (58) (77) = (37) + (41) + (74) + (76) 60 78 Rotor Current, in A For each test point using Eq. 71 For each test point using Eq. 71 61 Combined Stray-Load Loss, in W (61) = (55) -(73) -(59) -(77) 62 79 Stray -Load Loss, in W (62) = (61) ~ (79) (79) = (76) x (61) /[ (58) + (76)] Combination of Part A and Part B Data Machine 1 Machine 2 80 82 Average Rotor Current, in A (80) = [(23) + (60)]/2 (82) = [.(43) + (78)] / 2 81 83 Average Stray-Load Loss, in W (81) = 1(25) + (62)J/2 (83) =[(44) + (79)]/ 2 Linear Regression Analysis Machine 1 - Intercept (84) Slope (85) Correlation Factor (86) Machine 2 - Intercept (87) Slope (88) Correlation Factor (89) Corrected Values 90 99 Stator l 2 R Loss, in W, at r s As in (18) with R at t s As in (38) with R at t s 91 100 Power Across Air Gap, in W (91) = (16) -(17) -(90) (100) = (36) -(37) -(99) 92 101 Slip, in p.u. (12) Corrected as in 5.3.2 (32) Corrected as in 5.3.2 93 102 Speed, in r/min (93) = (9)x [1.00 -(92)] (102) = (29) x [1.00- (101)] 94 3 03 Rotor I 2 R Loss, in W, at t s (94) = (93) x (92) (103) = (102) x (101) 95 104 Stray-Load Loss, in W (95) = (85) x (80) 2 (104) = (88)x(82) 2 96 105 Total Loss, in W (96) = (90) + (94) + (95) + (17) + (21) (105) = (99) + (103) + (104) + (37) + (41) 97 106 Shaft Power, in W (97) = (16) -(96) (106) = (36) -(105) 98 107 Efficiency, in % (98)= 100 x (97) /(1 6) (107) = 100 x (106)/ (36) Parentheses, ( ), normally used with equation numbers are not used here to avoid confusion with the form item numbers. Summary of Characteristics Machine 1 [Machine 2 similar but not shown here. See Form C.J Load, in % of rated 25 50 75 100 125 150 Power Factor, in % Efficiency, in % Speed, in r/min Line Current, in A Plot the line current, speed, and efficiency vs. output watts and then select values for these same quantities at precise load points to obtain the summary of characteristics. The power factor is computed for each precise load point from its amperes, volts, and input watts. The input power for the power factor calculation is: input power = 100 x output power from curve/efficiency in percent. Form C2, Part 2 68 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 9.10 Form E-Method E-E1 Type Frequency, _ Design _ Volts Degrees C Temperature Rise . _ Frame _ „Rating . _ Synchronous r/min _ _Time Ratine , _Phase_ _Serial No. Model No. Description (Motoring)(Generating) l 2 3 4 5 6 Ambient Temperature, in °C tStator Winding Temperature, t u in °C Frequency, in Hz Synchronous Speed, n s in r/min Observed Speed, in r/min Observed Slip, in r/min Corrected Slip, in r/min Coirected Speed, in r/min Line-to-Line Voltage, in V Line Current, in A Stator Power, in W Core Loss, in \V Winding resistance corrected to t s Stator I 2 R Loss, in W, at t s Power Across the Gap, in W Rotor/ 2 /? Loss, in W Friction and Windage Loss, in W Rotor Current, in A * Stray- Load Loss, in W Total Loss, in W Shaft Power, in W Efficiency, in % Power Factor, in % ♦Method B see 5.7.2 or 5.7.3, Method El See 5.7.4 U t — temperature of stator winding as determined from stator resistance or temperature detectors during test. Summary of Characteristics Load, in % of rated 25 50 75 100 125 150 Power Factor, in % Efficiency, in % Speed, in r/min Line Current, in A Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 69 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 9.11 Form E2-Method E-E1 calculations Type Frequency _ Design _ . Frame _ .Volts . Degrees C Temperature Rise , _ Synchronous r/min _ Time Rating _Raling . Phase. Serial No. Model No. Cold Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals (1) Ohms @ (2) °C From 6.7.1 .1 Specified Stator Temperature, t s , (3) °C in a 25 °C Ambient, From 3.3.2 c) (Test)(Standard) Stray-Load Loss, (P' SL ) = (4) *in W @, /' 2 , (5) A Item Description (Motoring)(Generating) Source or Calculation 6 Ambient Temperature, in °C From test of 6.7. 1.2 7 tStator Winding Temp, t t , in °C From each point of test 6.7.1 .2 8 Frequency, in Hz Line frequency 9 Synchronous Speed, in r/min = 1 20 x (8) / number of poles 10 Observed Speed, in r/min From each point of test 6.7. 1 .2 11 Observed Slip, in p.u. =E(9)-(10).]/(9) 12 Corrected Slip, in p.u. (10) corrected per 5.3.2 13 Corrected Speed, in r/min U~(12)jx(9) 14 Line- to- Line Voltage, in V From each point of test 6.7.1 .2 15 Line Current, in A From each point of test 6.7.1 .2 16 Stator Power, in W From each point of test 6.7. 1 .2 17 Core Loss, in W From 6.7.2.3 18 Winding resistance corrected to t s Correct (1) per 5.2.1 19 Stator 1 2 R Loss, in W, at t s = 1.5x(15) 2 x(18) 20 Power Across the Gap, in W = (16) -(17) -(19) 21 Rotor l 2 R Loss, in W = (12)x(20) 22 Friction and Windage Loss, in W = From 6.7.2.2 23 Rotor Current, in A From Equation 23 using (15) and / 24 Stray-Load Loss, in W See 5.7.2.5 for Method E or 5.7.4 for Method El 25 Total Loss, in W = (17) + (19) + (21) + (22) + (24) 26 Shaft Power, in W For motor: = (16) -(25) For generator: = (16) + (25) 27 Efficiency, in % For motor: = 100 x (26) / (16) For generator: = 100 x (16) / (26) 28 Power Factor, in % = 100 x (16) /[1. 732 x(14)x(15)] T/ ; ~ temperature of stator winding as determined from stator resistance or temperature detectors during test. Parentheses, ( ), normally used with equation numbers are not used here to avoid confusion with the form item numbers. 70 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS 9.12 Form F-Methods F, F1, C/F, E/F, and E1/F1 Serial No. Type Rating. _ Voltage „ .Model No. . _ Synchronous Speed . IEEE Std 11 2-2004 Phase ..Frequency _ Description (Motoring)(Generating) 1 2 3 4 5 6 A" Slip in p.u. R 2 ls Effective rotor resistance X 2 Rotor reactance z? Rotor impedance G x Rotor conductance G fc Core conductance G Rotor & mag. circuit conductance -B 2 Rotor susceptance -B M Magnetizing susceptance -B Rotor & magnetic circuit susceptance r 2 2 Rotor & magnetizing circuit admittance R s Rotor & magnetic circuit resistance «i Stator resistance per phase R Total resistance x s Rotor & magnetic circuit reactance X\ Stator reactance X Total reactance z Total impedance 'l Stator current h Rotor current Stator power Rotor power Stator I 2 R loss Pi, Core loss Rotor l 2 R loss p f Friction & Windage loss P S L Stray-Load loss Total losses Shaft power, in W Efficiency in % Power factor in % Speed in r/min Torque in N-m | Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 71 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR 9.13 Form F2-Methods F, F1, C/F, E/F, and E1/F1 calculations Serial No. Type Rating _ . Model No. . .Voltage . Synchronous Speed „ . Phase . .Frequency . Before starting calculation, fill in following items, obtained from previous tests: R 2 = (I) V = phase volts (2) P' S L (3) at Vi (4) and n s (5) also all the items below that are marked with an asterisk. (n lV = synchronous speed) Assume a value of slip, s, corresponding to expected full -load speed for full -load point and proportional values for other loads. For motor operation, a- is positive. For generator operation, s is negative. Numbers in ( ) represent item numbers. Item Description (Motoring)(Generating) Source or Calculation 6 s Slip in p.u. Assume values for each load point 7 R 2 /s Effective rotor resistance (7) = (l)/(6) *8 *2 Rotor reactance From equivalent circuit, see 5.9 9 z 2 2 Rotor impedance [Quantity squared] (9) = (7) 2 + (8) 2 10 Oi Rotor conductance (10) = (7)/ (9) *1I G fe Core conductance From equivalent circuit, see 5.9 12 G Rotor & magnetic circuit conductance (12) = (.10) + (11) 13 -B 2 Rotor susceptance (13) -(8)/ (9) *14 ~B M Magnetizing susceptance From equivalent circuit, see 5.9 \5 -B Rotor & magnetic circuit susceptance (15) = (13) + (14) 16 V2 2 Rotor & magnetizing circuit admittance [Quantity squared] (16) = (12) 2 + (15)2 17 /? ? Rotor & magnetic circuit resistance (I7) = (12)/(J6) *18 *i Stator resistance per phase From tests, see 5.9 19 R Total resistance (19) = (17) + (18) 20 X * Rotor & magnetic circuit reactance (20) = (15)/ (16) *21 *\ Stator reactance From equivalent circuit, see 5.9 22 X Total reactance (22) = (20) + (21) 23 z Total impedance (23) = square root of [ (1 9) 2 + (22) 2 j 24 h Stator current (24) = (2) / (23) 25 h Rotor current (25) = (24) / square root of 1(9) x (16) J 26 Stator power (26) = 3x(24) 2 x(19) 27 Rotor power (27) = 3 x (25) 2 x (7) 28 Stator I 2 R loss (28) = 3x(24) 2 x(18) 29 Pk Core loss (29) = 3x(24) 2 x(ll)/(l6) 30 Rotor 1 2 R loss (30) = (6) x (27) *31 p f Friction & Windage loss From tests, see 9.14 32 PSL Stray-Load loss (32) = (3)x|.(25)/(4)] 2 33 Total losses (33) = (28) + (29) + (30) + (31) + (32) 34 Shaft power, in W (34) = (26) - (33) 35 Efficiency in % For Motoring: (35) = 1 00 x (34) / (26) For Generating: (35) = 100 x (26) / (34) 36 Power factor in % (36)= 100 x (19)/ (23) 37 Speed in r/min (37)=(5)x|.l-(6)J 38 Torque in N-m (38) = 9.549 x (34)/ (37) 72 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS 9.14 Test and equivalent circuit results Serial No. Machine Type R aline Vollaee IEEE Std 112-2004 ^Synchronous Speed_ Model No. _ ^Frequency _ _ Phases _ Summary of Tests No Load Line Current, / . in A Stator Power, fV inW Impedance Data by Method of 5.9. 1 Frequency Hz Line Volts Line Current, /, in A Stator Power, P, inW Constants and Summary of Equivalent Circuit Parameters V\ volts per phase R\ ohms R 2 ohms Rfe ohms *1 ohms ^2 ohms (X { +Xt) ohms Bm Siemens Gr, Siemens Pf # watts See 5.5.4. Pk #watts See 5.5.5. Psi # * watts at Ii = < N, r/min amperes *See 5.7.2, 5.7.3, or 5.7.4. # When used in Method F. Fl , C/F. E/F, or El/FJ tests, these quantities are for the total machine and all others are per phase. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 73 IEEE Std 1 1 2-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR Annex A (informative) Bibliography [Bl] 1 C.FR Part 431 , Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, ''Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures, Labeling, and Cer- tification Requirements, for Electric Motors, Einal Rule," Federal Register, Vol. 64, No. 192, pp 54114- 54172, October 5, 1999. [B2] API Std 541 , 4th Edition: Form- Wound Squirrel Cage Induction Motors— 500 Horsepower and Larger, 2003. [B3] I'EC 60034-9: Rotating Electrical Machines-Part 9: Noise Limits, 1997. [B4J IEC 60034-14: Rotating Electrical Machines— Part 14: Mechanical vibration of certain machines with shaft heights 56mm and higher— Measurement, evaluation and limits of vibration, 1996. |B5] IEEE Std 1 ,M -1 986, IEEE Standard General Principles for Temperature Limits in the Rating of Electric Equipment and for the Evaluation of Electrical Insulation. [B6] IEEE Std 4™ -1995 Standard Techniques for High-Voltage Testing. [B7] NEMA MG-1 -2003, Motors and Generators. [B8] NIST Handbook 1 50-10, Efficiency of Electric Motors, (EEM). 74 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 Annex B (informative) Typical report of test form for routine tests Name of Manufacturer,. Address of Manufacturer _ Purchaser , Date of Test _ Manufacturer's Order No. Purchaser's Order No. Nameplate Data Rated hp/kW Service Factor Rated Speed r/min Phase Frequency Hz Volts Amperes Type Frame /Temp Rise^ by method \ Indicated / /Ambient temp\ and Insulation \ Class ) Time Rating Design Letter Code Letter for Locked kVA/hp Test Characteristics Serial No. No Load Locked Rotor Wound Rotor Open- Circuit Voltage High Poten- tial Test Voltage Stator Winding Resistance Between Terminals Volts Fre- quency Hz Speed r/min Am- peres Kilo- watts'* Volts Fre- quency Hz " Am- peres Kilo- watts* Ohms Temp in °C *If measured, optional. Notes: Data on test from _ _machine Approved by _ Date„ (this or duplicate) Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 75 IEEE Std 112-2004 Annex C (informative) Typical report of test form Name of Manufacturer _ Address of Manufacturer _ Serial No. Model Number.. IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR Manufacturer's Order No. Date of Test Purchaser's Order No. _ Purchaser Nameplate Rating Rated hp/kW Service Factor Rated Speed r/min Phase Frequency Hz Volts Amperes Type Frame Temperature Rise Conditions of Test Temperature Rise °C Stator Rotor Windings Windings Hours Run Line Volts Line Amperes Cooling Air/C *By Method *By Method Characteristics Rated Slip percent No-Load Line Current, amperes Secondary Volts at Standstill Secondary Amperes per Ring at Rated Load Resistance at 25 °C (between lines), ohms Prim Sec Torque and Starting Torque High Potential Tests Break-Down Torque in # Locked- Rotor Torque in # Starting Current Amperes (locked rotor) Volts ac for Sec. with % volts applied with % volts applied with % volts applied Stator Rotor Efficiencies and Power Factor Efficiency, Percent Power Factor, Percent Rated Load 75% Load 50% Load Rated Load 75%; Load 50% Load * Indicate method as; Thermometer, Thermocouple, Resistance, or Embedded Detector. # Indicate units: N-m or lbf-ft Notes: Data on test from (this or duplicate) . machine Approved by „ Date 76 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. IEEE POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS Std 1 1 2-2004 Annex D (informative) Units of measure D.1 Units of measure This standard uses metric units of measure in accordance with IEEE standard policy. However, this standard can be used when the units of measure are horsepower, hp, for shaft power, pound-force-feet, lbf-ft, for the torque(s) and pound-feet2, lb-ft2, for inertia. The areas in the specification that need to be modified when using these customary units and the specific modifications required are covered in D.1.1 through D.l .5. D.1.1 Mechanical power D. 1.1.1 Load test The mechanical power in the load test as calculated in 5.6.1 .1 is in watts. With the shaft torque, T, being measured in lbf-ft instead of N-m, the k 2 factor in Equation (10) is 7.043 instead of 9.549. See D.l .2.1 . D.1.1. 2 Output power The output power of a motor (input power of a generator) can be presented in horsepower by simple conver- sion of the calculated corrected stator power of the test forms. This power value as calculated is in watts. Divide this calculated power by 745.7 and the resulting number is the output power in hp. See Table D.l . D. 1.2 Torque D. 1.2.1 Shaft torque The shaft torque used in the mechanical power calculation of D.l .1 .1 is obtained from Equation (1 1 ), which starts with the measured shaft torque and applies a dynamometer correction factor, if this correction is needed. Equation (11) is valid for either unit of torque measure as long as all torques values use the same units of measure. Using mixed units of measure will always give wrong results and will invalidate the test. D. 1.2.2 Dynamometer correction The dynamometer correction is calculated as in 5.6.1.2 using Equation (12). The dynamometer correction torque, in lbf-ft, To, is calculated using Equation (12) with k 2 equal to 7.043 and with T A measured in lbf-ft. D.1.2.3 Locked-rotor torque See 7.2.2. The locked-rotor torque can be calculated using Equation (77). Change the value of factor ko to 7.043 and the result of solving Equation (77) will be the maximum locked-rotor torque in lbf-ft. D. 1.2.4 Speed-torque curve — Method 1 See 7.3.2.1 . The torque at each load point can be calculated using Equation (78). Change the value of factor k2 to 7,043 and the result of solving Equation (78) will be the torque in lbf-ft. Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 77 IEEE Std 112-2004 IEEE STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE FOR D.1.2.5 Speed-torque curve— Method 2 See 7.3.2.2. As in D.l .2.5, the torque at each load point can be calculated using Equation (79). However, the moment of inertia must be in Ib-ft 2 . With this and changing the value of factor hi to 7.043, the result of solv- ing Equation (79) will be the torque in lbf-ft. D. 1.2.6 Speed-torque curve-Method 3 See 7.3.2.3. The torque at each load point can be calculated using Equation (80). Change the value of factor kj to 7.043 and use values of motor friction and windage torque, Tf w , in lbf-ft. Solve Equation (80) for each speed point and the resulting values will be the torque, T, measured in lbf-ft. D.1.3 Test forms When using customary units, the test forms of Clause 9. should be modified to show the correct units of measure, lbf-ft for torque and hp for shaft power, to add additional lines to show shaft power in hp and to show the correct ki factor in applicable calculations. The changes needed are shown in Table D.l . Table D.1— Form changes required Subclause Form l.D. Units are: Item No. Add line after No. Add on new line Calculation 9.2,9.3 A,A1 lbf-ft 14,15,16 - - - - 17 — - *(17) = (16)x(13)/7.043 - - 26 Shaft Power, in hp | =(17)/ 745.7 9.4,9.5 B,B2 lbf-ft - ___ ■ - 1 * (27) = (26) x (12)/ 7.043 - 43 Shaft Power, in hp [ =(41)/ 745.7 9.6,9.7 Bl,B1-2 lbf-ft - - - 23 - * (23) = (22) x (8)/ 7.043 - - 39 Shaft Power, in hp = (37)/ 745.7 9.8,9.9 C,C2 - - 98 Shaft Power, in hp = (97)/ 7457 - - 107 Shaft Power, in hp = (106)/ 7457 9.10,9.11 E,E2 - - 28 Shaft Power, in hp | =(26)/ 745 .7 9.12,9.13 F,F1 - — 38 Shaft Power, in hp | =(34)/ 745.7 * These calculations are basically unchanged, only the constant has changed because of the use of lbf-ft units for the shaft torque. NOTE— The "new line" for the test forms shown in Table D.l , is for recording the shaft power in horsepower. These lines are introduced at the bottom of the forms so the Item Numbers that show calculations are not compromised. On the actual test form, this new line could appear directly after the existing "Shaft Power, in W" listing, if desired. D.1.4 Assumed stray-load loss The stray-load loss to be used with machines being tested by Efficiency Test Methods El , Fl or El/FI is selected from Table D.2 based on the rated horsepower. 78 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. Ali rights reserved. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND GENERATORS IEEE Std 112-2004 Table D.2— Assumed values for stray-load loss Machine rating In hp Stray-load loss percent of rated load 1-125 i .8% 126-500 1.5% 501-2499 i 1.2% 1 2500 and greater 0.9% The value of stray-load loss at rated load [F S l in Equation (22)] , in watts, is equal to the product of the per- cent value of stray-load loss in Table D.2, the rated hp, and the conversion factor 745.7 divided by 100. D.1.5 Resistance reading at shutdown Table D.3 shows the maximum permitted time between shutting off the power on the temperature test and obtaining the first stator resistance reading. The maximum delay is selected from Table D.3 based on the machine horsepower rating. Table D.3— Maximum time delay in resistance measurements Machine rating in hp Time delay after switching off power (seconds) 50 or less 30 Above 50 to 200 90 Above 200 120 Copyright © 2004 IEEE. All rights reserved. 79